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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 11 | Anacardiaceae | Toxicodendron

8. Toxicodendron vernicifluum (Stokes) F. A. Barkley, Amer. Midl. Naturalist. 24: 680. 1940.

漆树 qi shu

Rhus verniciflua Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. 2: 164. 1812; R. succedanea Linnaeus var. himalaica J. D. Hooker; R. succedanea var. silvestrii Pampanini; R. vernicifera Candolle, p.p.; Toxicodendron verniciferum (Candolle) F. A. Barkley; T. vernicifluum var. shaanxiense J. Z. Zhang & Z. Y. Shang.

Deciduous trees to 20 m tall; branchlets yellowish brown pubescent. Petiole 7-14 cm, inflated at base, petiole and rachis minutely pubescent; leaf blade imparipinnately compound, 15-30 cm; leaflets 9-13, opposite; leaflet petiolule 4-7 mm, pubescent; leaflet blade ovate to ovate-elliptic or oblong, 6-13 × 3-6 cm, membranous to papery, adaxially glabrous or minutely pubescent along midrib, abaxially yellow pubescent, base oblique, rounded or broadly cuneate, margin entire, apex acute or acuminate, lateral veins 10-15 pairs, prominent on both surfaces. Inflorescence paniculate, 15-30 cm, grayish yellow minutely pubescent, with slender branches. Pedicel 1-3 mm, shorter and more robust in female flowers. Calyx lobes ovate, ca. 0.8 mm, apically obtuse, glabrous. Petals yellowish green, oblong, ca. 2.5 × 1.2 mm, with brown featherlike venation pattern. Stamens ca. 2.5 mm; filaments equal to anthers in length, shorter in female flower; anthers oblong. Disk 5-lobed. Ovary globose, glabrous; styles 3. Infructescence pendulous; drupe symmetrical, 5-6 × 7-8 mm, glabrous; epicarp thin, indehiscent; mesocarp thick, waxy, with brown longitudinal resin ducts; endocarp ca. 3 × 5 mm. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Jul-Oct.

Hill and mountain forests; 800-2800 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Japan, Korea].

This species is a main source of varnish used in the manufacture of lacquer-ware.


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