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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 12 | Vitaceae

8. Vitis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 202. 1753.

葡萄属 pu tao shu

Authors: Hui Ren & Jun Wen

Ampelovitis Carrière; Spinovitis Romanet du Caillaud.

Lianas, woody, usually polygamo-dioecious, rarely hermaphroditic. Bark usually shedding; tendrils leaf-opposed, usually bifurcate. Leaves simple, often lobed, sometimes palmately compound; stipules usually caducous. Inflorescence a thyrse. Flowers 5-merous. Calyx saucer-shaped; sepals minute. Petals united at apex and shed as a cap (calyptra) at anthesis. Stamens opposite to petals, undeveloped and abortive in female flowers. Disk conspicuous, 5-lobed or ring-shaped. Pistil 1; style slender; stigma slightly expanded. Berry globose, 2-4-seeded. Seeds obovoid or obovoid-elliptic, base rostrate, abaxially 1-furrowed with a rounded or suborbicular or elliptic chalazal knot, adaxially 2-furrowed; endosperm M-shaped in cross-section.

About 60 species: mostly in temperate regions, extending to the subtropics with the species diversity primarily in China and E North America; 37 species (30 endemic, one introduced) in China.

Vitis vinifera Linnaeus, the well-known source plant for grapes and wine, has a long history of cultivation all over the world. The wild grape species are primarily distributed in three centers of diversity: East Asia, North to Central America, and Europe to Central Asia. In China, Vitis occurs naturally in all provinces except Xinjiang, Qinghai, Nei Mongol, and Ningxia. The roots, stems, and leaves of several wild species are used as medicine; the berries are edible or used to make wine; and the seeds are sometimes used for oil.

Vitis chrysobotrys H. Léveillé & Vaniot (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 3: 350. 1907) is a synonym of Iodes vitiginea (Hance) Hemsley, and V. seguinii H. Léveillé (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 4: 331. 1907, "seguini") is the basionym of I. seguinii (H. Léveillé) Rehder, both in the Icacinaceae (see Fl. China 11).

Vitis mairei H. Léveillé (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 11: 299. 1912, not 7: 338. 1909) and V. martini H. Léveillé & Vaniot (Bull. Soc. Agric. Sarthe 40: 41. 1905) are synonyms of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunberg) Makino in the Cucurbitaceae (see Fl. China 19).

The following species were described from China but could not be treated here because no material was seen by the authors:

Vitis adenoclada Handel-Mazzetti (Anz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 62: 145. 1925), described from Hunan.

Vitis jinzhainensis X. S. Shen (Acta Phytotax. Sin. 27: 304. 1989), described from Anhui.

Vitis shifunensis Hayata (Icon. Pl. Formosan. 5: 31. 1915; V. triphylla Hayata, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 30(1): 63. 1911, not Noronha, 1790), described from Taiwan.

Vitis yuenlingensis W. T. Wang (Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 9(1): 75. 1989), described from Hunan.

1 Leaves palmately compound with 3-5 leaflets   (2)
+ Leaves simple   (3)
2 (1) Branchlets and inflorescence axes pilose; leaflets abaxially sparsely pubescent, or with woolly hairs when young, becoming sparsely so when mature.   10 V. piasezkii
+ Branchlets and inflorescence axes with arachnoid tomentum; leaflets abaxially with persistent rubiginous arachnoid tomentum.   37 V. lanceolatifoliosa
3 (1) Branchlets with prickles, becoming tuberculate on old branches.   1 V. davidii
+ Branchlets and old branches without prickles or tubercles   (4)
4 (3) Branchlets and petioles with setose and glandular hairs, glands with or without a stalk   (5)
+ Branchlets and petioles pilose or with arachnoid tomentum   (6)
5 (4) Branchlets and petioles with dense glandular as well as simple hairs; leaves inconspicuously 3-5-lobed or unlobed, margin with sharp teeth.   2 V. romanetii
+ Branchlets and petioles with sparse glandular hairs; leaves conspicuously 3-5-lobed, margin with obtuse teeth.   3 V. shenxiensis
6 (4) Leaves abaxially with dense white or rubiginous arachnoid or woolly tomentum   (7)
+ Leaves abaxially glabrous, or pilose, or with sparse arachnoid tomentum   (16)
7 (6) Leaves 3-5-lobed or heterophyllous and mixed with undivided ones   (8)
+ Leaves undivided or inconspicuously 3-5-lobed   (11)
8 (7) Leaves 3-5-lobed, lobes broad   (9)
+ Leaves 3-5-cleft or deeply parted, mixed with undivided ones   (10)
9 (8) Branches with white woolly tomentum, erect hairs absent; tendrils bifurcate.   28 V. heyneana
+ Branches pilose; tendrils unbranched or mixed with bifurcate ones.   35 V. sinocinerea
10 (8) Leaves of two types, 3-5-cleft and undivided.   31 V. longquanensis
+ Leaves all divided deeply or at least to middle, sometimes deep lobes pinnatifid, some lobes broad and undivided.   36 V. bryoniifolia
11 (7) Leaves basally deeply cordate, notch rounded or acutely angular, sinuses close together or overlapping   (12)
+ Leaves basally slightly cordate or subtruncate, sometimes mixed with conspicuously cordate ones   (13)
12 (11) Leaves oval or ovate-elliptic, abaxial veins with woolly tomentum.   29 V. retordii
+ Leaves suborbicular or quinquangularly rounded, abaxial veins densely pubescent with appressed soft hairs.   30 V. menghaiensis
13 (11) Branchlets and inflorescence axis ± with arachnoid tomentum.   28 V. heyneana
+ Branchlets and inflorescence axis with variable hairiness (including arachnoid tomentum)   (14)
14 (13) Leaves adaxially with sparse arachnoid tomentum when young, then glabrescent; branchlets and inflorescence axis with sparse arachnoid tomentum.   32 V. bellula
+ Leaves adaxially or only veins with dense, short, appressed hairs; inflorescence axis densely pubescent   (15)
15 (14) Branchlets sparsely pilose; leaves slightly lobed, base truncate, only adaxial veins sparsely pubescent.   33 V. bashanica
+ Branchlets densely pubescent; leaves undivided, base subcordate, adaxially densely pubescent.   34 V. hui
16 (6) Leaves abaxially glabrous or only axils of veins with hairs, or young leaves with tomentum then falling off   (17)
+ Leaves abaxially pilose or at least abaxial veins pilose or with arachnoid tomentum   (25)
17 (16) Leaves sagittate or deltoid-sagittate, 3-5-lobed or cleft, or mixed with undivided ones; inflorescence narrow, small, cylindrical, with basal branches poorly developed   (18)
+ Leaves variously shaped but neither sagittate nor deltoid-sagittate, undivided   (19)
18 (17) Leaf margin 12-16-toothed on each side, conspicuously ciliate, abaxial veinlets raised.   17 V. wenchowensis
+ Leaf margin 7-10-toothed on each side, only upper part of margin with very short and sparse hairs, not ciliate, abaxial veinlets conspicuous, but not raised   20 V. ruyuanensis
19 (17) Leaves ovate, oval, elliptic, or ovate-lanceolate, base slightly subcordate or subtruncate   (20)
+ Leaves oval, broadly ovate, or triangular-ovate, base cordate or deeply so   (21)
20 (19) Leaves ovate or oval, not glaucous, veinlets inconspicuous.   25 V. flexuosa
+ Leaves elliptic or ovate-lanceolate, usually glaucous, veinlets conspicuous and raised.   8 V. chungii
21 (19) Basal sinuses close together or partly overlaid   (22)
+ Basal sinuses forming an obtuse angle without any overlapping   (23)
22 (21) Leaves subleathery, margin serrate, apex sharply acute, abaxially usually glaucous, rarely glaucescent.   6 V. chunganensis
+ Leaves papery, margin coarsely dentate, apex cuspidate, abaxially not glaucous.   21 V. mengziensis
23 (21) Peduncles with sparse arachnoid tomentum when young, then gradually falling off.   4 V. balansana
+ Peduncles pilose   (24)
24 (23) Leaves oval, apex acute or acuminate, veinlets slightly raised.   5 V. yunnanensis
+ Leaves ovate-oblong or triangular-ovate, apex acuminate, veinlets conspicuously raised.   7 V. luochengensis
25 (16) Leaves conspicuously 3-5-divided or mixed with undivided leaves   (26)
+ Leaves undivided, rarely inconspicuously 3-5-lobed   (33)
26 (25) Leaves basally deeply cordate, basal sinuses attaching or partly overlapping, margin coarsely toothed (cultivated).   27 V. vinifera
+ Leaves basally cordate, basal notch obtuse or rounded, margin shallowly toothed   (27)
27 (26) Tendrils unbranched, rarely bifurcate   (28)
+ Tendrils 2(or 3)-branched   (30)
28 (27) Branchlets and petioles sparsely brown villous; leaves undivided or mixed with 2- or 3-cleft leaves, margin with long ciliate hairs.   23 V. hancockii
+ Branchlets, petioles, and peduncles sparsely pilose; leaves usually 3-5-lobed or cleft, margin not ciliate or only slightly so with short ciliate hairs   (29)
29 (28) Leaves abaxially greenish or lavender, veinlets slightly raised.   18 V. jinggangensis
+ Leaves abaxially reddish purple, veinlets conspicuously raised on both sides.   19 V. erythrophylla
30 (27) Leaves unlobed or 3-5-lobed, lobes broad   (31)
+ Leaves 3-5-cleft to middle or deeply parted, lobes narrow, rarely lobes pinnatifid, or sometimes mixed with shallowly lobed leaves   (32)
31 (30) Leaves oval or obelliptic, basal sinuses forming an obtuse angle.   9 V. betulifolia
+ Leaves broadly oval, basal sinuses rounded, rarely forming an obtuse angle.   26 V. amurensis
32 (30) Plants small, stems slender; leaf margin 5-9-toothed on each side.   15 V. silvestrii
+ Plants strong, stems robust; leaf margin 16-25-toothed on each side.   14 V. zhejiang-adstricta
33 (25) Leaves abaxially with at least veins with arachnoid tomentum, rarely glabrous, never with erect hairs   (34)
+ Leaves abaxially with at least veins with erect hairs, or sometimes mixed with arachnoid tomentum   (36)
34 (33) Inflorescence axis pilose and with arachnoid tomentum.   22 V. fengqinensis
+ Inflorescence axis with arachnoid tomentum, but not erect hairs   (35)
35 (34) Leaves 7-16 × 5-12 cm, margin 16-20-toothed on each side.   12 V. wilsoniae
+ Leaves 3-7 × 2.5-6 cm, margin 5-13-toothed on each side.   16 V. wuhanensis
36 (33) Leaves rhombic-ovate or rhombic-elliptic, base broadly cuneate or suborbicular.   23 V. hancockii
+ Leaves ovate or oval, base cordate, subcordate, or subtruncate, rarely rounded   (37)
37 (36) Leaves basally conspicuously cordate   (38)
+ Leaves basally subcordate or subtruncate, rarely rounded   (39)
38 (37) Branchlets glabrous; abaxial veins of leaves pilose with spreading brown hairs.   11 V. pilosonerva
+ Branchlets with sparse woolly tomentum; abaxial veins of leaves with white hairs and with sparse arachnoid tomentum.   13 V. pseudoreticulata
39 (37) Tendrils bifurcate; leaves oval or ovate-elliptic.   9 V. betulifolia
+ Tendrils unbranched; leaves ovate or oval-lanceolate.   24 V. tsoi

  • List of lower taxa


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