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12. Yushania P. C. Keng, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 6: 355. 1957.

玉山竹属 yu shan zhu shu

Authors: De-Zhu Li, Zhenhua Guo & Chris Stapleton

Burmabambus P. C. Keng; Butania P. C. Keng; Monospatha W. T. Lin.

Shrubby spreading bamboos, sometimes subarborescent. Rhizomes facultatively long necked, pachymorph, neck to (0.3–)0.5 (–2) m, solid or hollow. Culms pluricaespitose or diffuse, erect or ascending; internodes terete, often scabrous, usually without prominent vertical ridges; wall thick; nodes (supra-nodal ridges) slightly prominent; buds lanceolate or rarely ovate, with reduced sheathing. Branches often 1 at lower nodes, initially 5–7(–12) at middle nodes, 9–11(–45) at upper nodes, on promontory, erect or deflexed, subequal or central branch strongly dominant at lower nodes; internodes ± terete. Culm sheaths tardily deciduous or persistent, usually initially setose, usually shorter than internodes; ligule usually truncate; blade usually reflexed, lanceolate or triangular. Leaves usually small to medium-sized; blade with prominent transverse veins. Inflorescence ebracteate, semelauctant, open, usually paniculate. Spikelets robust, long pedicellate, several to many flowered, apical floret sterile. Glumes 2; lemma mucronate or rarely obtuse, many veined; palea equal to or shorter than lemma, 2-keeled, obtuse; lodicules 3, transparent. Stamens 3; filaments free, long exserted; anthers yellow. Ovary appendage absent or inconspicuous; style 1, short or absent; stigmas usually 2, plumose.

About 80 species: Africa, E, S, and SE Asia; 58 species (57 endemic) in China.

Because of the poor knowledge of many taxa and their relatively recent description, often from a limited number of sterile gatherings, certain critical characteristics, notably rhizome neck lengths and culm and leaf proportions, are not accurately known, and many species boundaries remain untested.

In addition to the species treated below, Yushania pingshanensis T. P. Yi (J. Bamboo Res. 19(1): 21. 2000) was described from sterile material from Sichuan (Pingshan). In the protologue it was compared with Y. straminea. Yushania pubescens T. P. Yi (J. Bamboo Res. 19(1): 24. 2000) was described from sterile material from Sichuan (Pingshan). In the protologue it was compared with Y. pingshanensis.

1 Culms with 5–9 branches or more per mid-culm node (often fewer in Y. canoviridis)   (2)
+ Culms with 1 branch per mid-culm node, or 1 branch on lower nodes and 3–5(–8) on mid-culm and upper culm regions, rarely branches absent   (37)
2 (1) Culm sheath auricles present   (3)
+ Culm sheath auricles absent   (9)
3 (2) Culms 1.2–3 cm in diam.; culm sheaths equal in length to internodes or slightly longer, apex acuminately narrowly triangular.   1 Y. vigens
+ Culms less than 1.7 cm in diam.; culm sheaths much shorter than internodes, apex arcuate or broadly triangular   (4)
4 (3) Culm sheaths with dense, dark brown blotches or spots   (5)
+ Culm sheaths without blotches or spots   (7)
5 (4) Culms 2–2.5 m, 5–10 mm in diam., internodes with purple spots when young; culm sheaths proximally sparsely pale fulvous setose.   2 Y. brevipaniculata
+ Culms 3–7 m high, 9–17 mm in diam., internodes without purple spots when young; culm sheaths glabrous   (6)
6 (5) Leaf sheath auricles oblong or falcate, petiole abaxially pubescent; leaf blade (7–)11–17 mm wide, abaxially pallid.   3 Y. glauca
+ Leaf sheath auricles absent, petiole glabrous; leaf blade 4–11 mm wide, abaxially bright green.   4 Y. lineolata
7 (4) Culm internodes initially setose; leaf blade abaxially initially pubescent.   5 Y. hirticaulis
+ Culm internodes glabrous; leaf blades abaxially glabrous   (8)
8 (7) Culms 2–2.5(–3.5) m, internodes 20–80 cm; branches to 15 per node; culm sheaths proximally nearly smooth; leaf sheath auricles well developed, oral setae radiating.   6 Y. falcatiaurita
+ Culms to 1.6 m, internodes 15–25 cm; branches (1 or)2–6 per node; culm sheaths conspicuously longitudinally ribbed; leaf sheath auricles absent or fairly small, oral setae erect.   7 Y. canoviridis
9 (2) Rhizome necks hollow   (10)
+ Rhizome necks solid   (13)
10 (9) Culm sheaths hairy (sometimes glabrous in Y. weixiensis and Y. qiaojiaensis var. nuda); leaf sheath auricles present, oblong or minute   (11)
+ Culm sheaths glabrous; leaf sheath auricles absent   (12)
11 (10) Rhizome necks thick, 7–10 mm in diam.; culm sheath blades reflexed; leaf blades glabrous, delicate.   8 Y. weixiensis
+ Rhizome necks thin, 5–7 mm in diam.; culm sheath blades erect; leaf blades adaxially sparsely pubescent, tough.   9 Y. qiaojiaensis
12 (10) Culm sheath apically rounded, longitudinal ribs inconspicuous; culm sheath blades erect; leaf blades thick, with densely tessellate venation.   10 Y. cava
+ Culm sheath apically acuminate, longitudinal ribs prominent; culm sheath blades reflexed; leaf blades thin, with sparsely tessellate venation.   11 Y. yadongensis
13 (9) Culm sheaths nearly as long as internodes or longer (rarely only 1/2 internode length in Y. exilis and Y. varians)   (14)
+ Culm sheaths less than 1/2(–3/5) internode length (to 2/3 in Y. baishanzuensis)   (21)
14 (13) Culm internodes initially entirely or distally setulose   (15)
+ Culm internodes glabrous   (17)
15 (14) Culms to 2 m; internodes with fine prominent ridges.   12 Y. violascens
+ Culms to 5 m, internodes smooth   (16)
16 (15) Culm internodes not pruinose; culm sheaths with conspicuous longitudinal ribs, tessellate venation not evident; leaf sheath oral setae 1.5–3 mm.   13 Y. crassicollis
+ Culm internodes densely pruinose; culm sheaths with conspicuous longitudinal ribs, tessellate venation distinct; leaf sheath oral setae to 6 mm.   14 Y. bojieiana
17 (14) Culm internodes proximally flattened above branches   (18)
+ Culm internodes not proximally flattened above branches   (19)
18 (17) Culms to 4.5 m; leaf blades to 14 cm, with 4 or 5 pairs of secondary veins (E Guizhou).   15 Y. complanata
+ Culms to 1.5 m; leaf blades to 9 cm, with 3 or 4 pairs of secondary veins (N Fujian).   16 Y. longissima
19 (17) Culms to 5 m; culm sheaths densely setose.   17 Y. flexa
+ Culms to 2.5 m; culm sheaths sparsely setose   (20)
20 (19) Culm internodes to 28 cm; branches 1–1.5 mm thick, apically pendulous; culm sheath oral setae 4–6; culm sheath blades revolute; leaf sheath auricles absent, oral setae erect; leaf blades to 8 mm wide.   18 Y. exilis
+ Culm internodes to 15 cm; branches to 3.5 mm thick, erect; culm sheath oral setae absent to 2; culm sheath blades usually erect; leaf sheath auricles oblong, oral setae radiating; leaf blades to 12 mm wide.   19 Y. varians
21 (13) Culm internodes initially apically pubescent or setose   (22)
+ Culm internodes apically glabrous (sometimes setose in Y. mitis and Y. xizangensis)   (27)
22 (21) Culm internodes solid or subsolid, cavity to 1/3 culm wall thickness   (23)
+ Culm internodes hollow, cavity more than 1/2 culm wall thickness   (25)
23 (22) Culm sheaths cartilaginous, with dense purple-brown spots, glabrous or sparsely brown ciliate at base.   20 Y. maculata
+ Culm sheaths leathery, without spots, gray or fulvous setose or thickly hairy   (24)
24 (23) Culm internodes initially apically densely pruinose and sparsely gray setose below nodes; leaf blade to 2 cm wide, tessellation distinct; lemma glabrous.   21 Y. longiuscula
+ Culm internodes densely pruinose, sparsely brown setose below nodes; leaf blade to 1.2 cm wide, tessellation indistinct; lemma initially sparsely pubescent.   22 Y. crispata
25 (22) Leaf blade abaxially gray pubescent.   23 Y. lacera
+ Leaf blade abaxially glabrous   (26)
26 (25) Culms 4–7 m, to 3(–6) cm in diam.; culm sheaths densely fulvous setose, especially at base; leaf sheath oral setae absent to 3; leaf blade secondary veins 2- or 3-paired.   24 Y. elevata
+ Culms 1.5–2 m, to 0.5 cm in diam.; culm sheaths sparsely white setose toward margins; leaf sheath oral setae more than 10; leaf blade secondary veins 4-paired.   25 Y. baishanzuensis
27 (21) Culms to 7 m, to 3 cm in diam   (28)
+ Culms to 3(–4) m, to 1 cm in diam   (32)
28 (27) Culm internodes with fine ridges, hollow   (29)
+ Culm internodes smooth, solid or subsolid   (30)
29 (28) Culm internodes initially pruinose; branches 3–7 per node; culm sheaths densely purple-brown blotched; pseudopetioles glabrous.   29 Y. mitis
+ Culm internodes of young culms not pruinose; branches 10–19 per node; culm sheaths without blotches; pseudopetioles adaxially slightly setose.   30 Y. xizangensis
30 (28) Culm sheaths densely brown to black setose, not striped, oral setae absent or scarce.   26 Y. farcticaulis
+ Culm sheaths glabrous or with adnate fulvous seta at base, initially with sporadic longitudinal stripes, oral setae absent   (31)
31 (30) Culm internodes solid; leaf blades to 10(–12.5) cm, secondary veins 3–5-paired.   27 Y. levigata
+ Culm internodes hollow; leaf blades to 7.5 cm, secondary veins 2-paired.   28 Y. ailuropodina
32 (27) Leaf blade abaxially proximally pale pubescent initially   (33)
+ Leaf blades completely glabrous   (34)
33 (32) Culms 4–6 mm in diam.; internodes terete; culm sheaths glabrous or basally yellow-brown setose; leaf blades 9–13 mm wide, with 3 or 4 pairs of secondary veins.   31 Y. brevis
+ Culms 10–13 mm in diam.; internodes flattened above branches; culm sheaths more uniformly yellow-brown setose; leaf blades 14–23 mm wide, with 4 or 5 pairs of secondary veins.   32 Y. menghaiensis
34 (32) Culm internodes with fine conspicuous ridges; leaf sheaths 4.2–6 cm.   33 Y. collina
+ Culm internodes smooth or with inconspicuous fine ridges; leaf sheaths no longer than 5 cm   (35)
35 (34) Culm sheaths persistently retrorsely setose, oral setae ca. 5; leaf blades with 4–6 pairs of secondary veins.   34 Y. farinosa
+ Culm sheaths glabrous or rarely gray setose, oral setae absent to 2; leaf blades with 3 or 4 pairs of secondary veins   (36)
36 (35) Culm internodes hollow; branches 5–9 per node; culm sheath margins glabrous, ligules 1–1.4 mm; leaf sheath margins glabrous, auricles ca. 1 mm, leaf blade basally cuneate.   35 Y. laetevirens
+ Culm internodes solid or subsolid; branches (3–)8–30(–45) per node; culm sheath margins glabrous or initially ciliate; leaf sheath margin initially gray ciliate, auricles ca. 0.3 mm, leaf blade basally broadly cuneate or suborbicular.   36 Y. multiramea
37 (1) Culm sheath auricles conspicuous   (38)
+ Culm sheath auricles absent or reduced to small protuberances   (49)
38 (37) Culm internodes initially distally pubescent or setose   (39)
+ Culm internodes glabrous   (43)
39 (38) Leaf blades abaxially glabrous   (40)
+ Leaf blades abaxially pubescent   (41)
40 (39) Culms 4–8 mm in diam., branches with secondary branching.   37 Y. mabianensis
+ Culms 1.5–2.5 mm in diam., branches absent or solitary and without secondary branching.   38 Y. andropogonoides
41 (39) Branches solitary at all nodes; leaf sheath auricles and oral setae absent.   39 Y. grammata
+ Branches 3(–5) per node on upper culm; leaf sheath auricles conspicuous, oral setae radiating   (42)
42 (41) Culm internodes to 25(–37) cm, initially with dense purple spots; culm sheaths with longitudinal ribs inconspicuous or distally conspicuous, oral setae 2–5 mm.   40 Y. polytricha
+ Culm internodes to 15(–37) cm, without spots; culm sheaths with longitudinal ribs conspicuous, oral setae 4–15 mm.   41 Y. basihirsuta
43 (38) Branches 1.5–3 mm in diam.; leaf blade 1.2–1.7 cm wide, secondary veins 4- or 5-paired.   42 Y. longiaurita
+ Branches 3–8(–12) mm in diam.; leaf blade 3–5.7 cm wide, secondary veins 7–11-paired   (44)
44 (43) Branches always 1 per node; leaf blade (13–)19–26(–33) cm.   43 Y. chingii
+ Branches several per node on upper culm; leaf blade 7–19 cm   (45)
45 (44) Culm sheaths densely setose   (46)
+ Culm sheaths glabrous   (48)
46 (45) Culm internodes without spots; culm sheath oral setae to 2 cm; pseudopetioles villosulous, leaf blade secondary veins (3 or)4- or 5(or 6)-paired, tessellations rectangular.   46 Y. straminea
+ Culm internodes initially purple spotted; culm sheath oral setae 3–6 mm; pseudopetioles glabrous, leaf blade secondary veins 5–9-paired, tessellations square   (47)
47 (46) Culms to 2.5 m, internodes 16–22 cm; oral setae 2–7 mm.   44 Y. auctiaurita
+ Culms to 3(–4) m, internodes to 32 cm; oral setae 10–12 mm.   45 Y. dafengdingensis
48 (45) Culms to 4.5 m; leaf sheath oral setae 3–5 mm; pseudopetiole 7–9 mm; leaf blade 3.6–4 cm wide   47 Y. oblonga
+ Culms to 2.5 m; leaf sheath oral setae 4–14 mm; pseudopetiole 2–3.5 mm; blade 1.8–2.8 cm wide.   48 Y. cartilaginea
49 (37) Culm sheaths glabrous or basally yellow-gray setose   (50)
+ Culm sheaths setose or initially so   (53)
50 (49) Culm internodes without purple spots when young; branches solitary at lower nodes, 3–5 at upper nodes   (51)
+ Culm internodes with purple blotches when young, branches solitary at nodes   (52)
51 (50) Culms to 10 mm in diam., internodes hollow, initially thickly pruinose below nodes and distally with siliceous stubble, longitudinal ribs inconspicuous; branchlets with 6–8 leaf blades; leaf sheaths 2.5–4 cm; blades to 13 cm.   49 Y. wuyishanensis
+ Culms 4–5 mm in diam., internodes subsolid, initially pruinose under nodes and distally villosulous, longitudinal ribs conspicuous; branchlets with 1–3 leaf blades; leaf sheaths 4–9 cm; blades to 19(–27) cm.   50 Y. glandulosa
52 (50) Culm shoots pruinose, brown setose at base; leaf blade oblong-lanceolate or ovate-elliptical, 3–5 cm wide, conspicuously rugose when dried.   51 Y. rugosa
+ Culm shoots not pruinose, glabrous; leaf blade lanceolate, 1.5–2.6 cm wide, usually flat when dried   52 Y. uniramosa
53 (49) Culm internodes terete   (54)
+ Culm internodes grooved above branches, especially in lower culm   (56)
54 (53) Culm internodes uniformly pruinose; sheath scars yellow setose initially; leaf blades 0.6–1.5(–2.1) cm wide, abaxially proximally gray-yellow pubescent by midrib and on pseudopetiole.   53 Y. confusa
+ Culm internodes only apically pruinose; sheath scars glabrous; leaf blades 1.5–2.2(–2.8) cm wide, glabrous   (55)
55 (54) Culms to 3.5 m; culm sheaths cartilaginous, with erect setae; branchlets with 2–5 blades.   54 Y. pauciramificans
+ Culms to 1.8 m; culm sheaths leathery, with sparse, appressed setae; branchlets with 4–9 blades   55 Y. punctulata
56 (53) Culm internodes glabrous.   56 Y. pachyclada
+ Culm internodes initially hispidulous   (57)
57 (56) Leaf sheath distally villosulous, oral setae present, brown, 2–4 mm; leaf blade glabrous, 0.3–1.3 cm wide, secondary veins 2–4-paired.   57 Y. niitakayamensis
+ Leaf sheaths glabrous, oral setae absent (rarely 1–3, erect); leaf blade abaxially initially villosulous, 1–2.5 cm wide, secondary veins 4–8-paired.   58 Y. suijiangensis

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