1. Abies squamata Masters, Gard. Chron., ser. 3. 39: 299. 1906.
鳞皮冷杉 lin pi leng shan
Trees to 40 m tall; trunk to 1 m d.b.h.; bark of trunk breaking into square, rough plates, inner bark red when fresh, bark of young trees and 4th-year branchlets exfoliating into irregularly papery scales (like that of Betula). Branchlets brown, turning brownish gray in 2nd or 3rd year, ± pubescent or glabrous; winter buds globose, resinous. Leaves densely arranged, ascending on upper side of branchlets, spreading in 2 lateral sets on lower side, dark green adaxially, linear, ± falcate, 1.5-3 cm × ca. 2 mm, stomatal lines in 2 white bands separated by midvein abaxially, 3-15 near apex adaxially (where incomplete), resin canals 2, median or almost marginal in young leaves, apex acute or obtuse. Seed cones subsessile, erect, black or violet-brown at maturity, shortly cylindric or narrowly ovoid, 5-8 × 2.5-3.5 cm. Seed scales at middle of cones almost reniform, ca. 1.3 × 1.5 cm, apex thickened. Bracts slightly exserted, obovate-cuneate, 1-1.4 cm, distal margin erose-denticulate, apex rounded or slightly emarginate, cusp recurved or straight. Seeds oblong-cuneate, ca. 5 mm; wing as long as seed.
* Mountains; 3000-4700 m. S Gansu, S Qinghai, W and N Sichuan, SE Xizang
The timber is used for construction, furniture, and wood pulp.