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9. Abies Miller, Gard. Dict. Abr., ed. 4. 1: [11]. 1754.

冷杉属 leng shan shu

Abies fargesii
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Trees evergreen; branches regularly whorled; branchlets opposite (rarely whorled), with orbicular, depressed leaf scars and persistent bud scales at base; short branchlets absent; winter buds usually 3 at apex of branchlets, subglobose, ovoid, or conical, often resinous. Leaves spirally arranged, radially spreading, or pectinately arranged in lateral sets, linear, straight or curved, flattened, grooved adaxially, stomatal bands 2, abaxial, vascular bundle 1, resin canals 2(-10 outside China), marginal (in hypodermis) or median (in mesophyll), rarely submedian, base twisted. Pollen cones borne in leaf axils of previous year’s branchlets, pendulous, narrowly ellipsoid or oblong when young, finally cylindric; pollen 2-saccate. Seed cones pedunculate or sessile, erect, ovoid-cylindric or shortly cylindric, maturing in 1st year. Seed scales closely overlapping, often reniform, trapeziform, or flabellate, woody, base narrowed, deciduous at maturity. Bracts oblong, obcordate, or obovate, with exserted or included, sometimes reflexed cusp. Seeds borne in a membranous cup, obliquely ovoid or cuneate-oblong; wing well developed, persistent, cuneate-dolabriform or oblong-cuneate. Cotyledons (3 or)4-8(-12). Germination epigeal. 2n = 24*.

About 50 species: Asia, Europe, North America; 22 species (14 endemic, one introduced) in China.

Abies pindrow (Royle ex D. Don) Royle, Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. 1: t. 86. 1836, occurs in Afghanistan, N India, Kashmir, and Nepal, growing on alpine lithosols, either as pure stands or with Cedrus deodara, Picea smithiana, and Tsuga dumosa, and at elevations of 2000-3000(-3700) m. It should be searched for in similar habitat in SW Xinjiang and W Xizang. It is related to A. chensiensis and A. holophylla.

1 Seed cones narrowly cylindric (length more than 2.5 × width), rachis conical, slender.   (2)
+ Seed cones ovoid, conical, or broadly cylindric, rachis conical, conical-cylindric, or fusiform, stout.   (4)
2 (1) Bracts of seed cones exserted and reflexed; seed scales reniform   6 Abies nephrolepis
+ Bracts of seed cones included; seed scales cuneate-flabellate.   (3)
3 (2) Leaves strongly ascending, densely covering branchlets; winter buds usually more than 3 mm   19 Abies kawakamii
+ Leaves slightly ascending, those on lower side of branchlets laterally spreading, more remote and leaving branchlets visible; winter buds 2-3 mm   9 Abies sibirica
4 (1) Rachis of seed cones conical, not thick; seed scales thickest at or below middle; branchlets usually thin.   (5)
+ Rachis of seed cones fusiform or conical-cylindric, thick; seed scales usually apically thickened; branchlets usually stout.   (12)
5 (4) Seed cones oblong-conical; bracts strongly exserted; resin canals of leaves 2-4.   (6)
+ Seed cones ovoid-oblong to cylindric; bracts included or only cusps exserted near base of cones; resin canals of leaves 2.   (7)
6 (5) Bracts of seed cones slightly exserted, not reflexed, oblanceolate; winter buds large (to 10 × 5 mm); leaves light green   8 Abies firma
+ Bracts of seed cones exserted, reflexed at distal margin, spatulate; winter buds smaller; leaves dark green   16 Abies beshanzuensis
7 (5) Leaves 1.5-3(-3.5) cm; seed cones violet-blue, oblong-cylindric to ovoid-oblong, 2.5-3.5(-4) cm wide.   (8)
+ Leaves 2-5(-9) cm; seed cones yellowish green to violet-blue, cylindric or ovoid-cylindric, 3.5-6 cm wide.   (9)
8 (7) Leaves spreading pectinately or at least parted on upper side of branchlets, apex emarginate (obtuse on cone-bearing branchlets)   22 Abies ernestii
+ Leaves often reflexed on upper side of branchlets, apex acute or obtuse   21 Abies recurvata
9 (7) Leaf apex on vegetative branchlets entire   10 Abies holophylla
+ Leaf apex on vegetative branchlets emarginate or 2-cleft.   (10)
10 (9) Leaves 3-3.5 mm wide, 2-4.8 cm long, apex obtuse (rarely slightly emarginate); seed cones dark brown when mature; bracts spatulate, apex 9-10 mm wide   16 Abies beshanzuensis
+ Leaves 2.5-3 mm wide (or wider, but then more than 4.5 cm long), apex emarginate at least on vegetative branchlets; seed cones light brown when mature; bracts not spatulate.   (11)
11 (10) Leaves usually 2-4.5 cm; seed cones 10-14 cm   2 Abies chensiensis
+ Leaves to 7.5 cm or more; seed cones 4-10(-14) cm   22 Abies ernestii
12 (4) Bark exfoliating in large, papery flakes   1 Abies squamata
+ Bark not as above.   (13)
13 (12) Seed cones usually 10-17 × 4-7 cm; bracts included; leaves pectinately arranged, 2.5-6 cm × 2.2-3.5 mm, margin slightly recurved, apex emarginate or 2-cleft   20 Abies spectabilis
+ Seed cones smaller, if larger than 10 × 5 cm then usually with bracts exserted; leaves more radially spreading, shorter or with margin strongly revolute.   (14)
14 (13) Leaf margin strongly revolute; stomatal bands white, partly hidden.   (15)
+ Leaf margin of leaves not revolute or only very slightly recurved; stomatal bands entirely visible.   (17)
15 (14) Bracts of seed cones gradually terminating in a short cusp, not or only slightly exserted; young branchlets yellowish brown   18 Abies densa
+ Bracts of seed cones abruptly terminating in an elongated, subulate cusp, usually (or at least the cusp) exserted; young branchlets red-brown.   (16)
16 (15) Seed scales 1.3-1.5 × 1.4-1.8 cm; bracts oblong-spatulate, apical cusp 3-5 mm   11 Abies delavayi
+ Seed scales 1.7-2 × 1.8-2.2 cm; bracts cuneate-obovate, apical cusp ca. 2 mm   17 Abies nukiangensis
17 (14) Bracts of seed cones not exserted; leaf apex on vegetative branchlets 2-cleft   13 Abies forrestii
+ Bracts of seed cones (or at least the cusps) exserted; leaf apex on vegetative branchlets not 2-cleft.   (18)
18 (17) Seed cones green or yellowish green during growing season; bracts exserted, reflexed   12 Abies yuanbaoshanensis
+ Seed cones purple or purplish blue during growing season; bracts not reflexed.   (19)
19 (18) Young branchlets yellowish brown, mostly glabrous   15 Abies fabri
+ Young branchlets usually purplish brown, reddish brown, or dark orange-brown.   (20)
20 (19) Seed cones 5-9 × 3-4 cm; apex of bracts rounded or emarginate, terminating in an abrupt, small cusp.   (21)
+ Seed cones larger, or if less than 9 × 4 cm then with differently shaped bracts.   (22)
21 (20) Leaves very densely arranged in overlapping, pectinate rows, 1-2.5(-4.3) cm; bracts of seed cones mostly included or slightly exserted with very short cusps   3 Abies fanjingshanensis
+ Leaves less densely arranged, longer, especially on shaded branchlets; bracts of seed cones exserted with much longer cusps   5 Abies fargesii
22 (20) Seed cones 7-10(-14) × 4-5(-6) cm; young branchlets smooth, shining, glabrous   13 Abies forrestii
+ Seed cones usually less than 8 cm, often broadly barrel-shaped or ovoid; young branchlets ± densely rusty brown pubescent.   (23)
23 (22) Resin canals of leaves marginal   14 Abies georgei
+ Resin canals of leaves median.   (24)
24 (23) First-year branchlets dark red-brown or dark brown   4 Abies ferreana
+ First-year branchlets light yellowish gray, yellowish brown, or grayish brown   7 Abies chayuensis

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