3. Picea koraiensis Nakai, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo). 33: 195. 1919.
红皮云杉 hong pi yun shan
Picea intercedens Nakai; P. intercedens var. glabra Uyeki; P. koraiensis var. intercedens (Nakai) Y. L. Chou; P. koyamae Shiras var. koraiensis (Nakai) Liou & Q. L. Wang; P. tonaiensis Nakai.
Trees to 30 m tall; trunk to 80 cm d.b.h.; bark gray- or red-brown, rarely gray, flaking; crown pyramidal; branchlets initially yellow, yellowish brown, or reddish brown, turning yellowish, reddish, or gray-brown in 2nd or 3rd year, slender, glabrous or pubescent; winter buds reddish brown, conical-ovoid, slightly resinous, scales ± recurved at apex. Leaves directed forward on upper side of branchlets, spreading on lower side, quadrangular-linear, straight or curved, broadly quadrangular in cross section, green, 1.2-2.2 cm × 1.5-1.8 mm, stomatal lines 2-4 along each surface, apex acute. Seed cones green, maturing yellowish brown or brown, ovoid-cylindric, 5-8 × 2.5-3.5 cm. Seed scales at middle of cones obovate or obovate-oblong, 1.5-1.9 × 1.2-1.5 cm, exposed part of abaxial surface glossy, distal margin entire, rounded or obtuse. Seeds dark gray, obovoid, ca. 4 mm; wing pale brown, narrowly obovate-oblong, 0.9-1.2 cm. Pollination May-Jun, seed maturity Sep-Oct.
Mountain slopes, along streams; 400-1800 m. Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning [Korea, E Russia]
Only var. koraiensis, described here, occurs in China; var. pungsanensis (Uyeki ex Nakai) Farjon (P. pungsanensis Uyeki ex Nakai) is endemic to N Korea and differs in having the distal margin of the seed scales erose-denticulate and obtuse or truncate.
The timber is used for construction, furniture, carving, poles, ships, and wood pulp. Resin is extracted from the trunk, and tannin from the bark and cones. The species is also cultivated
for afforestation and as an ornamental.