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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 4 | Pinaceae

2. Picea A. Dietrich, Fl. Berlin. 2: 794. 1824.

云杉属 yun shan shu

Trees evergreen; trunk monopodial, straight; branches nearly whorled; branchlets ridged and grooved, with each leaf borne on a persistent, peglike base (pulvinus); short branchlets absent; winter buds ovoid, conical, or subglobose, resinous or not, scales on terminal buds recurved or not, persistent at base of branchlets. Leaves spirally arranged, spreading radially, or directed forward on upper side of branchlets and spreading on lower side, each inserted on a petiolelike pulvinus, linear, straight or curved, quadrangular, broadly rhombic, or flattened in cross section, stomatal lines adaxial or on each surface, vascular bundle 1, resin canals 2, sometimes small and discontinuous. Pollen cones solitary in leaf axils, rarely terminal, ellipsoid or cylindric; pollen 2-saccate. Seed cones solitary, pendulous at maturity, ovoid-cylindric or cylindric, rarely ovoid, maturing in 1st year. Seed scales thinly woody, leathery, or papery, with margin entire, denticulate, or undulate toward apex, persistent. Bracts included, small. Seeds obovoid or ovoid; wing long, membranous. Cotyledons 4-9(-15). Germination epigeal. 2n = 24*.

About 35 species: Asia, Europe, North America; 18 species (seven endemic, two introduced) in China.

1 Leaves flattened or subflattened (broadly rhombic in cross section), adaxial surface much paler, stomatal lines mostly or only present on adaxial surface.   (2)
+ Leaves quadrangular in cross section, equifacial or subequifacial, all surfaces similar in color, stomatal lines present and almost equal in number on each surface.   (7)
2 (1) Seed scales closely arranged before maturity, rigid, ± thinly woody.   (3)
+ Seed scales loosely arranged before maturity, thin, flexible, ± leathery or papery.   (5)
3 (2) Leaves 1.5-3.5 cm; seeds 1.6-2 cm including wing   14 Picea spinulosa
+ Leaves 1-2.3(-2.5) cm; seeds 1.2-1.6 cm including wing.   (4)
4 (3) Leaves directed forward and closely appressed on upper side of branchlets, spreading and almost pectinately arranged on lower side, not parallel sided; seed scales at middle of cones obovate-oblong or rhombic, distal margin usually recurved, sometimes elongate   15 Picea brachytyla
+ Leaves directed forward (but not appressed) on upper side of branchlets, slightly directed forward on lower side, parallel sided for most of length; seed scales at middle of cones obovate, convex, distal margin ± incurved, rounded   16 Picea farreri
5 (2) Leaves subflattened, ± broadly rhombic in cross section; seed cones usually (4-)7-15 × 2.5-5 cm   11 Picea likiangensis
+ Leaves flattened; seed cones usually 2.5-6 × 1.5-3 cm.   (6)
6 (5) Seed cones violet or black-purple at maturity; leaves 0.7-1.2 cm   12 Picea purpurea
+ Seed cones brown or yellowish brown at maturity; leaves 1-2 cm   13 Picea jezoensis
7 (1) Bud scales at base of branchlets appressed; 1st-year branchlets glabrous.   (8)
+ Buds scales at base of branchlets ± reflexed (opening in P. schrenkiana); 1st-year branchlets ± pubescent, rarely glabrous.   (12)
8 (7) Leaves 3.5-5.5 cm; seed cones 12-18 cm   8 Picea smithiana
+ Leaves 0.8-2.5 cm; seed cones, 5-14 cm.   (9)
9 (8) Seed cones 8-14 × 3-6.5 cm; leaves 1.5-2.5 cm.   (10)
+ Seed cones 5-8 × 2.5-5 cm; leaves 0.8-1.8 cm.   (11)
10 (9) Winter buds purplish brown, not glossy, to 5 mm; branchlets gray or pale yellow with a little brown; seed scales rhombic-obovate, 2.7-3 cm wide   7 Picea neoveitchii
+ Winter buds reddish brown or dull brown, glossy, 8-10 mm; branchlets yellowish brown; seed scales broadly cuneate-obovate or semiorbicular, 1.5-2.5 cm wide   18 Picea torano
11 (9) First-year branchlets pale gray or yellowish gray; seed cones 2.5-4 cm   9 Picea wilsonii
+ First-year branchlets yellowish brown or brown; seed cones 5-7 cm   10 Picea morrisonicola
12 (7) Branchlets densely glandular hairy   1 Picea obovata
+ Branchlets ± pubescent, without glandular hairs, rarely glabrous.   (13)
13 (12) Branchlets pale yellow or yellow, pendulous; bud scales not reflexed at base of branchlets   2 Picea schrenkiana
+ Branchlets darker, rarely pendulous; bud scales ± reflexed at base of branchlets.   (14)
14 (13) Leaves yellow-green, slender, ca. 1.5-1.8 mm wide.   (15)
+ Leaves ± glaucous green, stout, ca. 2-2.5 mm wide.   (16)
15 (14) Seed cones 10-15(-18.5) cm   17 Picea abies
+ Seed cones 5-8 cm   3 Picea koraiensis
16 (14) Leaf apex acute or pungent   4 Picea asperata
+ Leaf apex obtuse, mucronate, or subacute, upcurved.   (17)
17 (16) Seed cones green, margin red toward apex before maturity; branchlets reddish, ± glaucous   5 Picea crassifolia
+ Seed cones green before maturity; branchlets yellow-brown or brown in 2nd year, not glaucous   6 Picea meyeri

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