20. Hibiscus surattensis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 696. 1753.
刺芙蓉 ci fu rong
Furcaria surattensis (Linnaeus) Kosteletzky.
Herbs annual, subshrublike, 0.5-2(-4) m tall, usually procumbent, sometimes scandent, most parts sparsely villous and aculeate, prickles retrorsely curved. Stipules auriculate, foliaceous, ca. 5 mm, sparsely long hirsute; petiole 2-7 cm, abaxially sparsely aculeate, adaxially densely long hirsute; leaf blade palmately 3-5-lobed, 5-10 × 5-11 cm, lobes ovate-lanceolate, 3-7 × 1.5-3 cm, sparsely strigose on both surfaces, margin irregularly serrate; basal veins 5, sparsely aculeate. Flowers solitary, axillary. Pedicel 1-5 cm, sparsely aculeate and villous. Epicalyx lobes 8-10, base terete, 5-7 mm, inner branch erect, linear-lanceolate to filiform, 1-2 cm, aculeate, outer branch/abaxial appendage ovate to elliptic, 0.7-1 cm. Calyx turning reddish in fruit, shallowly cup-shaped, lobes 5, ovate-lanceolate, apex long acuminate, ca. 2.5 cm, aculeate. Corolla pale yellow with dark red center; petals ca. 3.5 cm. Capsule ovate-globose, ca. 1.2 × 1 cm, densely scabrous and hirsute with long hairs, shortly beaked. Seeds reniform, sparsely strigose with white minute hairs. Fl. Sep-Mar.
Forest margins, open slopes, valleys, streamsides; 300-1200 m. Hainan, Hong Kong, S Yunnan [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, Australia].
The auriculate stipules and ovate epicalyx lobe appendages of this species are instantly diagnostic.