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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 12 | Malvaceae

15. Hibiscus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 693. 1753.

木槿属 mu jin shu

Bombycidendron Zollinger & Moritzi; Fioria Mattei; Furcaria (Candolle) Kosteletzky (1836), not Desvaux (1827); Hibiscus sect. Furcaria Candolle; H. sect. Sabdariffa Candolle; Ketmia Miller; Sabdariffa (Candolle) Kosteletzky; Solandra Murray (1785), not Linnaeus (1759), nor Swartz (1787), nom. cons.; Talipariti Fryxell.

Shrubs, subshrubs, trees, or herbs. Leaf blade palmately lobed or entire, basal veins 3 or more. Flowers axillary, usually solitary, sometimes subterminal and ± congested into a terminal raceme, 5-merous, bisexual. Epicalyx lobes 5 to many, free or connate at base, rarely very short (H. schizopetalus) or absent (H. lobatus). Calyx campanulate, rarely shallowly cup-shaped or tubular, 5-lobed or 5-dentate, persistent. Corolla usually large and showy, variously colored, often with dark center; petals adnate at base to staminal tube. Filament tube well developed, apex truncate or 5-dentate; anthers throughout or only on upper half of tube. Ovary 5-loculed or, as a result of false partitions, 10-loculed; ovules 3 to many per locule; style branches 5; stigmas capitate. Fruit a capsule, cylindrical to globose, valves 5, dehiscence loculicidal and sometimes partially septicidal or indehiscent (H. vitifolius Linnaeus). Seeds reniform, hairy or glandular verrucose.

About 200 species: tropical and subtropical regions; 25 species (12 endemic, four introduced) in China.

According to recent molecular studies (Pfeil et al., Syst. Bot. 27: 333-350. 2002), Hibiscus is paraphyletic, and as more taxa are sampled and a more robust phylogeny is constructed, the genus undoubtedly will be recast. Species of other genera of Hibisceae found in China, such as Abelmoschus, Malvaviscus, and Urena, fall within a monophyletic Hibiscus clade. Decaschistia, which is currently placed in the Decaschisteae, also falls within this clade, but only a single Australian species was sampled and this may not be representative of the genus as a whole. Given the unsettled taxonomy of Hibiscus, we are choosing to be conservative, recognizing the paraphyletic nature of Abelmoschus, Malvaviscus, Urena, and possibly Decaschistia, and refraining from recognizing additional segregates of Hibiscus such as Fioria and Talipariti, which themselves may not be monophyletic.

The large colorful flowers of many species mean that the genus is of great horticultural interest and several species are now widely distributed in China. Hibiscus elatus Swartz and H. radiatus Cavanilles were included in FRPS but they are cultivated species of limited occurrence and do not meet the criteria for inclusion in this Flora.

Hibiscus forrestii Diels (Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 5: 252. 1912), described from Yunnan, could not be treated here because no material was seen by the authors.

1 Herbs, annual or perennial, sometimes ± scandent   (2)
+ Shrubs or trees   (10)
2 (1) Epicalyx absent; calyx membranous, persistent and enclosing capsule.   25 H. lobatus
+ Epicalyx present; calyx leafy, rarely ± fleshy   (3)
3 (2) Ovary and capsule glabrous; perennial herbs.   18 H. moscheutos
+ Ovary and capsule strigose or pilose; annual or perennial herbs   (4)
4 (3) Leaf blade cordate, ovate, or orbicular, not lobed; capsule margins winged.   19 H. yunnanensis
+ Leaf blade palmately lobed; capsule margins without wings   (5)
5 (4) Stems with reflexed or retrorsely curved prickles; epicalyx lobes with foliaceous appendage at or above middle   (6)
+ Stems usually without prickles; epicalyx lobes with or without appendages   (8)
6 (6) Perennial herbs or subshrubs; stipules filiform; pedicel 0.3-0.7 cm; corolla purple, petals ca. 7 cm (cultivated). ------ H. radiatus   (6)
+ Annual herbs, often prostrate or scandent; stipules leafy, narrowly lanceolate or auriculate; pedicle 1-5 cm; corolla pale yellow with dark purplish center, fading to dull pink, petals ca. 3.5 cm   (7)
7 (6) Stipules auriculate; stem prickles without basal tubercle, curved.   20 H. surattensis
+ Stipules narrowly lanceolate; stem prickles with prominent basal tubercle, straight.   21 H. hispidissimus
8 (5) Herbs annual, stems slender, erect or procument, with long white hairs; leaf blade lobes obovate to oblong, irregular, pinnately lobed, sometimes leaf ± compound; calyx papery, inflated, pale with purplish veins.   22 H. trionum
+ Herbs annual or perennial, stems robust, erect; leaf blade lobes lanceolate; calyx leafy or fleshy, not inflated, uniformly colored   (9)
9 (8) Stems not spiny; epicalyx lobes lanceolate, with spiny appendage near apex, connate at base; calyx and epicalyx lobes red, thick and fleshy.   23 H. sabdariffa
+ Stems sparsely prickly; epicalyx lobes filiform, spiny, without appendage, free; calyx and epicalyx lobes green, not thickened.   24 H. cannabinus
10 (1) Leaf margin entire or nearly so; epicalyx cup-shaped, lobes 8-12, joined for more than ca. 1/4 of length   (11)
+ Leaf margin serrate or dentate; epicalyx lobes almost free, joined only at base, sometimes absent   (15)
11 (10) Leaf blade ovate-oblong to elliptic-oblong, 3(-5)-veined, abaxial surface glabrous, stipules filiform; calyx longer than capsule.   4 H. grewiifolius
+ Leaf blade cordate, 7-11-veined, abaxial surface hairy, often tomentose, stipules foliaceous or spathaceous; calyx as long as capsule   (12)
12 (11) Branchlets glabrous; leaf blade 8-20 cm; seeds glabrous   (13)
+ Branchlets hairy; seeds hairy or minutely papillate   (14)
13 (12) Petals yellow with dark purple basal spot, 4-4.5 cm; calyx persistent.   2 H. tiliaceus
+ Petals red, 8-10 cm; calyx caducous (cultivated). ------ H. elatus   (12)
14 (12) Branchlets with fascicled, long and silklike hairs; leaf blade 15-35 cm wide, stipules 2-4 cm wide; evergreen forest.   1 H. macrophyllus
+ Branchlets softly stellate pubescent, stellate hairs 0.5 mm or less; leaf blade 4-8 cm wide, stipules 0.3-1 cm wide; coastal sand.   3 H. hamabo
15 (10) Flowers in panicles, terminal or axillary; leaf blade cordate or ovate-cordate, not lobed; plant a climber.   5 H. austroyunnanensis
+ Flowers solitary, axillary, sometimes ± congested into a terminal raceme; leaf blade elliptic, oblong, or ovate to orbicular-ovate, often lobed; plant an erect shrub or tree, rarely climbing (H. fragrans)   (16)
16 (15) Epicalyx lobes spatulate, apex rounded, rarely lobed; leaf blade leathery, densely stellate tomentose.   6 H. aridicola
+ Epicalyx lobes filiform to ovate, apex obtuse or acute; leaf blade papery, indumentum sparser   (17)
17 (16) Flowers pendulous; pedicel glabrous; staminal column longer than corolla; leaf blade not lobed   (18)
+ Flowers erect or patent; pedicel hairy; staminal column shorter than or equaling corolla; leaf blade usually lobed (not lobed in H. fragrans)   (19)
18 (17) Petals deeply pinnatifid, reflexed; epicalyx lobes 1-2 mm.   7 H. schizopetalus
+ Petals entire or only slightly incised, spreading but not reflexed; epicalyx lobes 8-15 mm.   8 H. rosa-sinensis
19 (17) Leaf blade base cuneate or broadly cuneate, 3-5-veined; style glabrous or hairy   (20)
+ Leaf blade base cordate, truncate, or rounded, 5-11-veined; style hairy   (22)
20 (19) Epicalyx lobes 4-6 mm, connate for 1/3-1/2 length; seed glabrous.   17 H. leviseminus
+ Epicalyx lobes 6-25 mm, connate at base only; seed glabrous or hairy (ornamental deciduous shrubs)   (21)
21 (20) Leaf blade cuneate, ovate, or orbicular; epicalyx lobes lanceolate- oblong, 3-5 mm wide.   16 H. sinosyriacus
+ Leaf blade ovate, orbicular, or rhomboid; epicalyx lobes linear, 0.5-2 mm wide.   15 H. syriacus
22 (19) Epicalyx lobes ovate, 5-12 mm wide   (23)
+ Epicalyx lobes linear or linear-lanceolate, 1.5-5 mm wide   (25)
23 (22) Leaf blade ovate, not lobed; corolla ca. 3 cm in diam   9 H. fragrans
+ Leaf blade palmately 3-7-lobed; corolla 7-12 cm in diam   (24)
24 (23) Pedicel and epicalyx lobes strigose with long ferruginous hairs ca. 3 mm.   10 H. paramutabilis
+ Pedicel and epicalyx lobes densely pale stellate pubescent.   11 H. indicus
25 (22) Epicalyx lobes 5 or 6, 16-25 × 3-5 mm; pedicel 1-3 cm.   14 H. labordei
+ Epicalyx lobes 8, 8-16 × 1.5-2 mm; pedicel 4-13 cm   (26)
26 (25) Pedicels and epicalyx lobes strigose, hairs ca. 3 mm; leaf blade suborbicular, lobes 3-5.   12 H. taiwanensis
+ Pedicles and epicalyx lobes densely woolly pubescent; leaf blade ovate or cordate, lobes 5-7.   13 H. mutabilis

  • List of lower taxa


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