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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 13 | Violaceae | Viola

46. Viola albida Palibin, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada. 17(1): 30. 1899.

朝鲜堇菜 chao xian jin cai

Herbs perennial, acaulescent, 5-20 cm tall, glabrous. Rhizome erect, short, ca. 1 cm, densely noded, ca. 6 mm in diam., with dense brown remains of stipules, with several yellowish rootlets. Roots light colored, to 10 cm. Leaves basal, usually 2-4; stipules greenish, 1/3-1/2 adnate to petioles, free part linear-lanceolate, margin remotely denticulate; petiole usually longer than blades, sometimes shorter than blades at fruiting, slender, very narrowly winged in upper part, glabrous; leaf blade ovate or broadly ovate, entire or irregularly few lobed or 3-5-fid, 2-11 × 1.5-7 cm, both surfaces glabrous, base deeply or shallowly cordate, margin regularly obtusely serrate, teeth curved toward inside, apex acuminate or shortly acuminate. Flowers white or light violet, purple striate, large, 1.6-2 mm in diam.; pedicels 1-3, equaling or slightly exceeding leaves, slender, 2-bracteolate at or below middle; bracteoles linear, ca. 1.5 cm. Sepals oblong-lanceolate, ca. 1.6 cm (basal auricles included), apex acuminate, basal auricles conspicuous, 2.5-4.5 mm, margin narrowly membranous, apex irregularly 2- or 3-dentate. Petals obovate, ca. 1.6 cm, upper ones ca. 9 mm wide, lateral ones ca. 6 mm wide, sparsely bearded, anterior one ca. 2.2 cm (spur included), apex emarginate; spur long, ca. 6 mm, stout, 3-4 mm in diam., apex rounded. Anthers ca. 2 mm, appendage of connectives ca. 2 mm; spur of 2 anterior stamens long, ca. 4 mm, slender, ca. 0.8 mm in diam. Ovary ca. 3 mm, glabrous; styles clavate, ca. 2.5 mm, base slender and slightly geniculate forward, gradually thickened upward; stigmas slightly thickened and narrowly margined on lateral sides and abaxially, slightly raised in central part and elongated forward into a short beak, with a medium-sized stigma hole at tip of beak. Capsule ovoid-orbicular, ca. 9 mm.

Mixed forests, thickets; 300-800 m. Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Shandong [Japan, Korea].

1 Leaf blade entire.   46a var. albida
+ Leaf blade divided.   46b var. takahashii


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