45. Viola chaerophylloides (Regel) W. Becker, Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2. 2: 856. 1902.
南山堇菜 nan shan jin cai
Herbs perennial, acaulescent, dwarf at anthesis, 4-20 cm tall, to more than 30 cm tall at fruiting. Rhizome erect, short, 3-10 mm, stout, surrounded by remains of stipules, with 3-6 robust yellowish or white roots. Basal leaves 2-6, long petiolate; stipules over 1/2 adnate to petioles, broadly lanceolate, membranous, margin sparsely denticulate and ciliate or entire, apex acuminate; petioles 3-9 cm at anthesis, usually green, sometimes purplish, glabrous, nitid, elongated at fruiting to more than 20 cm; leaf blade glabrous on both surfaces or pubescent along veins, 3-sect, segments shortly stipitate, lateral segments deeply 2-fid, central segment deeply 2- or 3-fid, terminal lobes highly variable in shape and size, ovate-lanceolate, lanceolate, oblong, or linear-lanceolate, margin irregularly dentate or shallowly divided, sometimes triparted to pinnatiparted or 3-lobed, apex obtuse or acute. Flowers white, creamy-white, or purplish, large, 2-2.5 cm in diam., fragrant; pedicels usually purplish, nitid, subequaling or exceeding leaves at anthesis, glabrous, 2-bracteolate above middle; bracteoles linear or linear-lanceolate, margin very remotely and minutely denticulate. Sepals oblong-ovate or narrowly ovate, 1-1.4 cm, basal auricles developed, 4.5-6 mm, glabrous, 3-veined, margin membranous, apex irregularly emarginate or shallowly divided. Petals broadly obovate, upper petals 1.3-1.5 cm × ca. 9 mm, lateral ones ca. 1.5 × 0.7 cm, sparsely bearded, anterior one purple-striate, 1.6-2 cm (spur included); spur long, 5-7 mm, stout, straight or slightly curved downward. Anthers 2.5-3 mm, spur of anterior 2 stamens ca. 5 mm, slender, ca. 1.5 mm in diam. Ovary ca. 2 mm, glabrous; styles ca. 3 mm, base slightly geniculate; stigmas slightly thickly margined on lateral sides and abaxially, slightly raised in central part, shortly beaked in front, with a rounded stigma hole at tip of beak. Capsule narrowly ellipsoid, large, 1-1.6 cm, glabrous, apex acute. Seeds numerous, ovoid, ca. 2.2 mm, ca. 1.5 mm in diam.
Mixed forests, forest margins, shaded and moist places in stream valleys, thickets on sunny slopes, grassy slopes; below 2000 m. Anhui, Chongqing, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shandong, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, SE Russia].