10. Viola rupestris F. W. Schmidt, Neuere Abh. Königl. Böhm. Ges. Wiss. 1: 60. 1791.
石生堇菜 shi sheng jin cai
Herbs perennial, caulescent, 5-10 cm tall, puberulous throughout, rarely sparsely puberulous or glabrous. Rhizome erect, deep brown, short, robust, with nodes and scales; tap root robust, long; roots brown, much branched in lower part; rootlets long, slender. Stems many, fasciculate, obliquely ascending or erect, longitudinally angled. Basal leaves rosulate, long petiolate; cauline leaves similar to basal ones; stipules of basal leaves usually sparsely arranged, lanceolate, fimbriate-dentate, those of cauline leaves free, ovate to lanceolate, 3-7 × 0.8-2.5 mm, margin fimbriate-serrate or sparsely emarginate-serrate, teeth with brown glandular dots at apices, apex acuminate; petiole slender, weak, narrowly winged only in upper part, middle ones much longer than blades, upper ones ca. as long as blades; blade orbicular or ovate-orbicular, 0.8-1.7 × 0.7-1.8 cm, both surfaces puberulous, with brown glandular dots when dry, base shallowly cordate, margin regularly crenate, apex obtuse. Flowers solitary in upper leaf axils purple or purplish; pedicels much exceeding leaves, 2.5-6 cm, slender, sparsely puberulous, 2-bracteolate above middle; bracteoles subulate or linear, 4-6 mm, fimbriate-dentate at middle and lower parts. Sepals broadly lanceolate or lanceolate, 4-7.5 × 1-2.5 mm, 3-veined, with dense brown glandular dots, apex acute, basal auricles square, shorter, 0.5-1.5 mm, with 2 or 3 obtuse teeth at apex. Petals narrowly oblong-ovate, veins deeply colored, lateral petals 0.8-1 × ca. 4 mm, distinctly bearded, upper ones subequaling lateral ones, anterior one shorter, 1.3-1.4 cm (spur included), with dense brown glandular dots; spur cylindric, 3-4 mm, ca. 2 mm in diam., apex rounded, horizontally straight or slightly curved upward. Anthers ca. 1.3 mm, connective appendages ca. 0.7 mm; 2 anterior stamens ca. 3 mm, spur broadly triangular, ca. 2.5 × 0.8 mm. Ovary deep brown, ovoid, styles clavate, evenly thick, slightly narrower only at base, slightly geniculate forward at base, curved forward at tip and beaked, conspicuously papillose abaxially and on lateral sides of beak; beak horizontal, mouth slightly curved upward, with a larger stigma hole. Capsule oblong, 5-7 mm, 3-4 mm in diam., with remains of styles at apex, puberulous or glabrous.
Forests, grassy slopes, meadows in river valleys, sandy grasslands; 1000-2500(-4000) m. SE Gansu, S Shaanxi, S Shanxi, Xinjiang [Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, N Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan; SW Asia (Caucasus), Europe].