1. Carum carvi Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 263. 1753.
葛缕子 ge lü zi
Carum gracile Lindley; C. carvi var. gracile (Lindley) H. Wolff; C. carvi f. rubriflorum H. Wolff.
Plants 15–70(–150) cm tall. Taproot cylindrical, to 25 cm. Stems solitary, rarely 2–8, base without remnant sheaths. Basal and lower leaves oblong-lanceolate in outline, 2–3-pinnate; ultimate segments linear or linear-lanceolate, 3–5 × 1–2 mm. Leaves reduced upwards. Umbels 2.5–6 cm across; bracts absent or occasionally 1–4, linear, 4–11 mm, entire; rays 3–10, 0.6–4 cm, extremely unequal; bracteoles absent; umbellules 4–15-flowered. Calyx teeth obsolete. Petals white or pinkish, base not clawed. Fruit oblong-ellipsoid, 3–5 × 1–2 mm; vittae 1 in each furrow, 2 on commissure. Fl. May–Jul, fr. Jul–Sep. 2n = 20.
Forests, brushy alpine meadows, riparian grasslands, ruderal areas; 1500–4300 m. Gansu, Hebei, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan [widespread in Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean region; introduced elsewhere].