1. Chimaphila japonica Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi. 2: 165. 1866.
喜冬草 xi dong cao
Chimaphila astyla Maximowicz; C. fukuyamae Masamune.
Herbs perennial, to 15 cm tall. Rhizome descending or creeping, somewhat short, slender, 0.5–1 mm in diam., sparsely branched. Aerial stems erect, 0.5–2 mm in diam. Leaves in 2–5 subverticils of 2–4(–6) each, alternating with 5–7 persistent or caducous scales. Petiole 3–10 mm, glabrous; leaf blade abaxially pale green, rather shiny, adaxially deep green, not shiny, with paler or white midvein, lanceolate to broadly lanceolate, ovate, or broadly elliptic, 1–3.5 cm × 3–15 mm, leathery, glabrous, base rounded to subacute, margin serrate, apex acute or rarely obtuse, mucronate. Flower usually solitary, usually not opening fully. Peduncle erect, 2–5.5(–7) cm, slender, 0.2–0.6 mm in diam., papillose, rarely glabrous, 1(or 2)-flowered. Bracts 1–3, on upper part of peduncle, broadly ovate-lanceolate, 4–7 × 1–3 mm, membranous, base narrowed, sometimes into short stalk, margin irregularly toothed. Sepals 5(or 6), white with black veins when dry, narrowly lanceolate, 4–6(–7) × 1.5–3 mm, membranous, margin irregularly toothed, apex acute, rarely obtuse. Petals white, obovate-orbicular, 6–8 × 3–6 mm, concave, margin irregularly toothed. Stamens: lower dilated portion of filaments obovoid, pilose at margin and abaxially; anthers 1.2–2 mm, without distinct tubes, apex truncate. Ovary glabrous; stigma rounded with 5 undulate teeth, 1.5–2.5 mm in diam. Capsules 4–7 mm in diam. Seeds fusiform to oblong. Fl. Jun–Aug, fr. Sep–Oct.
Common, mainly in dry forests; sea level to 3000 m. Anhui, Guizhou, Hubei, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, Japan, Korea, Russia (Sakhalin)].