1. Symphytum officinale Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 136. 1753.
聚合草 ju he cao
Herbs forming tussocks, 30-90 cm tall, arcuate hispid, short strigose. Main roots purplish brown, stout. Stems erect or ascending, branched. Basal leaves long petiolate, lorate-lanceolate to ovate, 30-60 × 10-20 cm, apex acuminate; middle and upper stem leaves sessile, smaller, base decurrent. Inflorescences many flowered. Calyx parted nearly to base; lobes lanceolate, apex acuminate. Corolla light purple, purple-red, or yellowish white, 1.4-1.5 cm; throat appendages ca. 4 mm, not exserted beyond limb; lobes triangular, apex revolute. Filaments ca. 3 mm; lower part nearly as wide as anthers; anthers ca. 3.5 mm, apex with somewhat prominent connective. Ovary usually sterile, occasionally only 1 mericarp develops in a few flowers. Nutlets black, oblique ovoid or ovoid, 3-4 mm, smooth, shiny. Fl. May-Oct. 2n = 24 + 0-4b, 26, 32-45*, 46-48, 56.
Forests. Fujian, Hebei, Liaoning, Taiwan, Xinjiang [Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; Europe]