1. Hyoscyamus niger Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 179. 1753.
天仙子 tian xian zi
Hyoscyamus agrestis Kitaibel ex Schultes; H. bohemicus F. W. Schmidt; H. niger var. annuus Sims; H. niger var. chinensis Makino.
Herbs biennial, to 1 m tall, pubescent throughout with sticky glandular hairs. Roots sometimes stout, fleshy, 2-3 cm in diam. Leaves sessile, sometimes forming a rosette; blade of rosette leaves ovate-lanceolate or oblong, ca. 30 × 10 cm, coarsely dentate or pinnately lobed or parted, apex acute; blade of cauline leaves ovate or deltate-ovate, 4-10 × 2-6 cm, pubescent with sticky hairs, nearly clasping or broadly cuneate at base, lobed or entire. Flowers subsessile or on pedicels 3-5 mm. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 1-1.5 cm; lobes deltate, unequal, acute. Corolla pale yellow, usually with purple veins, campanulate, 2-3 cm. Stamens exserted. Fruiting calyx urceolate, 2-2.5 × 1-1.5 cm; lobes mostly erect, tipped with a sharp tooth. Capsules ovoid-rounded, ca. 1.5 × 1.2 cm. Seeds yellow-brown, discoid, ca. 1 mm in diam. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Jul-Oct.
Slopes, near roads, sands by rivers, rich humus soils near villages and houses, occasionally cultivated; 700-3600 m. Gansu, Guizhou, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; SW Asia, N Africa, Europe]
Alkaloids (hyoscyamine and scopolamine) contained in the roots, leaves, and seeds, are used as an anaesthetic and for relieving muscular spasm and pain. The seed oil can be used for soap making.