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Solanaceae A. L. Jussieu

茄科 qie ke

Authors: Zhi-Yun Zhang, Anmin Lu & William G. D'Arcy

Anisodus tanguticus

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs, shrubs, small trees, or climbers. Stems sometimes prickly, rarely thorny; hairs simple, branched, or stellate, sometimes glandular. Leaves alternate, solitary or paired, simple or pinnately compound, without stipules; leaf blade entire, dentate, lobed, or divided. Inflorescences terminal, overtopped by continuing axes, appearing axillary, extra-axillary, or leaf opposed, often apparently umbellate, racemose, paniculate, clustered, or solitary flowers, rarely true cymes, sometimes bracteate. Flowers mostly bisexual, usually regular, 5-merous, rarely 4- or 6-9-merous. Calyx mostly lobed. Petals united. Stamens as many as corolla lobes and alternate with them, inserted within corolla, all alike or 1 or more reduced; anthers dehiscing longitudinally or by apical pores. Ovary 2-5-locular; placentation mostly axile; ovules usually numerous. Style 1. Fruiting calyx often becoming enlarged, mostly persistent. Fruit a berry or capsule. Seeds with copious endosperm; embryo mostly curved.

About 95 genera with 2300 species: best represented in western tropical America, widespread in temperate and tropical regions; 20 genera (ten introduced) and 101 species in China.

Some species of Solanaceae are known in China only by plants cultivated in ornamental or specialty gardens: Atropa belladonna Linnaeus, Cyphomandra betacea (Cavanilles) Sendtner, Brugmansia suaveolens (Willdenow) Berchtold & Presl, Nicotiana alata Link & Otto, and Solanum jasminoides Paxton.

Kuang Ko-zen & Lu An-ming, eds. 1978. Solanaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 67(1): 1-175.


1 Flowers in several- to many-flowered inflorescences; peduncle mostly present and evident.   (2)
+ Flowers 1-3 per axil; peduncle absent or obsolete.   (9)
       
2 (1) Fruit enclosed in fruiting calyx.   (3)
+ Fruit exposed, exceeding fruiting calyx.   (6)
       
3 (2) Plants copiously spiny; leaves much divided or lobed   13 Solanum
+ Plants unarmed; leaves entire.   (4)
       
4 (3) Flowers in congested axillary clusters; disc conspicuous, red-orange; fruit a berry   10 Withania
+ Flowers in racemes, spikes, or panicles, sometimes umbellate; disc not evident; fruit a capsule.   (5)
       
5 (4) Corolla zygomorphic, 2-lipped; fruiting calyx lobes mucronate, with strong marginal veins   6 Hyoscyamus
+ Corolla actinomorphic; fruiting calyx lobes lacking mucros and strong marginal veins   7 Physochlaina
       
6 (2) Corolla tube much longer than lobes and limb; seeds not compressed, usually ovoid to ellipsoid; calyx not or hardly becoming enlarged.   (7)
+ Corolla tube much shorter than lobes and limb; seeds mostly compressed, discoid, reniform, or lenticular; calyx often becoming enlarged.   (8)
       
7 (6) Fruit a few-seeded berry; flowers regular; plants puberulent or glabrescent; calyx less than 6 mm, shallowly lobed   18 Cestrum
+ Fruit a many-seeded capsule; flowers somewhat zygomorphic; plants mostly viscid glandular pubescent; calyx more than 6 mm, deeply lobed   19 Nicotiana
       
8 (6) Corolla yellow; anthers dehiscing longitudinally, with a slender, sterile apex; seeds pilose; flowers 5-9-merous   15 Lycopersicon
+ Corolla usually white, blue, or violet (if yellow then zygomorphic); anthers dehiscing by terminal pores, lacking a terminal appendage; seeds glabrous; flowers 4- or 5-merous   13 Solanum
       
9 (1) Fruit enclosed in fruiting calyx, sometimes fused with it; herbs.   (10)
+ Fruit fully or mostly exposed, free from calyx; herbs, shrubs, or trees.   (16)
       
10 (9) Fruit a dry dehiscent capsule; flowering calyx more than 1.5 cm, lobed or divided halfway; corolla more than 2.5 cm.   (11)
+ Fruit a juicy or dry indehiscent berry; flowering calyx mostly less than 1.5 cm (if more than 1.5 cm then corolla more than 2 cm), deeply parted; corolla less than 2 cm.   (14)
       
11 (10) Stems mostly underground; normal leaves forming a rosette at stem apex, scaly leaves distributed along new stems; flowers mostly included within rosette   5 Przewalskia
+ Stems aboveground; normal leaves borne along stems, scaly leaves absent; flowers arising along stem or apically in leaf axils.   (12)
       
12 (11) Leaves mostly subsessile, petiole if present winged; pedicel less than 5 mm; calyx lobes sharp pointed, with noticeable marginal veins   6 Hyoscyamus
+ Leaves petiolate, petiole wingless; pedicel more than 5 mm; calyx lobes blunt, lacking marginal veins.   (13)
       
13 (12) Corolla zygomorphic, funnelform; stamens unequal; calyx lobes alike; fruiting pedicel not thickened   4 Atropanthe
+ Corolla regular, campanulate; stamens subequal; calyx lobes differing in size and/or shape; fruiting pedicel thickened   3 Anisodus
       
14 (10) Corolla blue and white; fruiting calyx lobes free more than halfway down, each with 2 basal auricles; fruit a dry brown berry   1 Nicandra
+ Corolla yellow or white; fruiting calyx lobes united to near apex, lacking basal auricles; fruit a juicy, green, yellow, or orange berry.   (15)
       
15 (14) Fruiting calyx with thickened angles (ribs), bristly soft emergences that appear deltate on drying, or with both   8 Physaliastrum
+ Fruiting calyx lacking enations on ribs or walls, angles sometimes prominent but not thickened   9 Physalis
       
16 (9) Fruit a dry capsule; leaves entire, dentate, or lobed.   (17)
+ Fruit a berry, often juicy; leaves entire.   (18)
       
17 (16) Calyx 5-lobed, circumscissile; fruit prickly or papillate, 4-valved or irregularly dehiscent; plants erect, mostly more than 60 cm tall; seeds discoid; corolla lobes pointed   17 Datura
+ Calyx 5-parted, persistent; fruit unarmed, lacking papillae, 2-valved, dehiscent; plants sprawling, if erect then less than 50 cm tall; seeds ovoid or oblong; corolla mostly with rounded lobes   20 Petunia
       
18 (16) Corolla funnelform; stamens mostly exserted; shrubs, often thorny; leaves usually fasciculate on short shoots   2 Lycium
+ Corolla campanulate, rotate, or stellate; stamens included; unarmed herbs or shrubs; leaves arising along stem or forming a basal rosette.   (19)
       
19 (18) Calyx with 5 well-developed apical lobes; fruit yellow to orange or black.   (20)
+ Calyx subtruncate, sometimes with 10 subapical teeth or umbos arising near base of apical rim; fruit red, sometimes yellow, purple, or pink in cultivation.   (21)
       
20 (19) Calyx becoming enlarged, wide flaring in fruit; leaves subsessile, usually forming a basal rosette; anthers dehiscing longitudinally   16 Mandragora
+ Calyx not enlarged; leaves petiolate, arising along stem; anthers dehiscing by apical pores   13 Solanum
       
21 (19) Anthers dehiscing by apical pores; corolla rotate; plants sometimes pubescent with simple or branched hairs; calyx often with 10 subapical teeth   14 Lycianthes
+ Anthers dehiscing longitudinally; corolla campanulate; plants glabrescent with sparse simple hairs; calyx 5-toothed or toothless.   (22)
       
22 (21) Corolla bright yellow; fruit a juicy globose berry; anther yellowish   12 Tubocapsicum
+ Corolla white, rarely blue or violet; fruit a dry variously shaped berry; anthers purplish   11 Capsicum

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