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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 17 | Solanaceae

13. Solanum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 184. 1753.

茄属 qie shu

Herbs, shrubs, climbers, or small trees, sometimes prickly; hairs simple, branched, or stellate, sometimes glandular. Leaves solitary or paired, simple or pinnately compound, mostly petiolate; leaf blade entire, dentate, lobed, or parted. Inflorescences axillary, extra-axillary, or leaf opposed, mostly racemose, paniclulate, umbellate, fasciculate, or solitary flowers, without bracts; peduncle branched or not, sometimes obsolete. Flowers bisexual or andromonoecious, mostly actinomorphic, often 5-merous. Calyx mostly lobed partway and splitting further at sinuses. Corolla mostly rotate or stellate. Stamens inserted high in corolla tube; anthers often connivent or connate around style, dehiscing by apical pores, often later splitting longitudinally. Ovary 2-5-locular, with enlarged placentae; ovules axile, numerous. Stigma small. Fruiting calyx persistent, sometimes enlarged and enclosing berry. Berries mostly juicy. Seeds discoid or lenticular; embryo strongly curved.

About 1200 species: most in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in the Americas; 41 species in China, about half introduced from elsewhere.

1 Plants with stellate hairs; prickles often present.   (2)
+ Plants glabrous or with predominantly simple or rarely dendritic hairs, stellate hairs usually absent, if present on leaves, then mixed with simple hairs; prickles mostly absent.   (20)
2 (1) Plants unarmed; leaves entire; anthers stout, not tapering; inflorescences many-flowered, flat or rounded panicles held upright above foliage in flower and fruit   2 Solanum erianthum
+ Plants mostly armed; leaves mostly dentate or lobed; anthers tapering distally; inflorescences unbranched or 1-branched, rarely more, angling from twigs, held below foliage or along stems.   (3)
3 (2) Calyx enlarged, closely enveloping most of berry.   (4)
+ Calyx hardly or not enlarged, not enveloping berry.   (7)
4 (3) Corolla yellow; anthers more than 1 cm, unequal; berry completely enveloped by calyx at maturity; fruiting calyx with dense prickles 1-2 cm   38 Solanum angustifolium
+ Corolla white, blue, or purplish; anthers less than 1 cm, equal; berry partly or completely exposed from enlarged calyx at maturity; fruiting calyx copiously or sparingly armed with prickles less than 1 cm.   (5)
5 (4) Leaves usually pinnate-parted, lobes pinnately lobed or dentate; stems pubescent with simple, many-celled glandular hairs and few stellate hairs   37 Solanum sisymbriifolium
+ Leaves entire or irregularly dentate; stems with only stellate hairs.   (6)
6 (5) Inflorescences less than 5 cm, peduncle less than 5 mm; corolla white   36 Solanum griffithii
+ Inflorescences more than 5 cm, peduncle more than 5 mm; corolla blue or purple   35 Solanum barbisetum
7 (3) Fruit densely stellate hirsute with persistent tomentum; plants tomentose; calyx lobes nearly leaflike, more than 8 mm   34 Solanum lasiocarpum
+ Fruit glabrous; plants variously pubescent; calyx lobes not leaflike, mostly less than 7 mm.   (8)
8 (7) Corolla more than 5 cm wide, deep purple, fading white, with contrasting abaxial pleats; sturdy trees to 12 m tall; fruit more than 3 cm   26 Solanum wrightii
+ Corolla less than 5 cm wide, white or purple, not conspicuously fading, lacking contrasting pleats; shrubs, or if small trees then trunk slender; fruit mostly less than 3 cm.   (9)
9 (8) Inflorescences mostly 1-3-branched; plants mostly more than 1 m.   (10)
+ Inflorescences unbranched; plants mostly less than 1 m.   (13)
10 (9) Leaves 3-5-lobed or parted, with loose and softly lanate pubescence on both surfaces, drying of 1 color; plants overall with rust-colored, short- or long-stalked, bristly-hispid stellate hairs   20 Solanum chrysotrichum
+ Leaves subentire or variously lobed, minutely scabrous with mostly sessile stellate pubescence adaxially, drying of different colors; leaves and stems lacking bristly, long-stalked hairs.   (11)
11 (10) Corolla white; pedicel with simple glandular hairs mixed with stellate ones; fruit yellow, more than 1 cm in diam.   25 Solanum torvum
+ Corolla blue, violet, or purple; pedicel with stellate hairs only; fruit red, less than 1 cm in diam.   (12)
12 (11) Leaves subentire or 6- or 7-sinuate lobed, ovate-elliptic; corolla more than 8 mm   22 Solanum macaonense
+ Leaves entire, lanceolate or narrowly oblong; corolla less than 8 mm   21 Solanum luzoniense
13 (9) Fruit more than 1.4 cm across; flowers mostly andromonoecious.   (14)
+ Fruit less than 1.4 cm across; flowers mostly bisexual.   (16)
14 (13) Fruit red, often longitudinally furrowed; corolla white or slightly purplish   29 Solanum aethiopicum
+ Fruit mostly yellow or black, not red, not furrowed; corolla blue or violet.   (15)
15 (14) Fruit mostly much more than 4 cm across, variously shaped, seldom globose, green, white, black, pink, or brown, only yellow at extreme maturity   40 Solanum melongena
+ Fruit mostly less than 4 cm across, globose, green or yellow   39 Solanum undatum
16 (13) Leaves soon glabrescent, deeply pinnately lobed; stems with copious, compressed, bright yellow, nearly straight prickles often more than 7 mm; anthers more than 7 mm; fruit yellow   41 Solanum virginianum
+ Leaves with persistent indumentum, entire, dentate, or shallowly lobed; stems unarmed or with recurved spines less than 5 mm; anthers mostly less than 7 mm; fruit red or orange.   (17)
17 (16) Leaves entire; plants unarmed or sparingly armed; inflorescences elongated   23 Solanum nienkui
+ At least some leaves lobed or sinuate; plants armed, sometimes copiously so; inflorescences condensed.   (18)
18 (17) Leaves mostly less than 4 cm, sinuate; petiole less than 1.5 cm; inflorescences mostly terminal on leafy shoots   24 Solanum procumbens
+ Leaves mostly more than 5 cm, often saliently lobed; petiole mostly more than 1.5 cm; inflorescences mostly extra-axillary or axillary.   (19)
19 (18) Flowers usually purple; plants evidently armed; fruiting pedicels usually erect, more than 1 cm   27 Solanum violaceum
+ Flowers usually white; plants sparingly armed, occasionally with prickles less than 1 mm; fruiting pedicels strongly recurved, less than 1 cm   28 Solanum deflexicarpum
20 (1) Anthers lanceolate, tapering to a slender subulate apex; plants with coarse, straight simple hairs, armed with needlelike prickles.   (21)
+ Anthers oblong or ovoid, not tapering; plants glabrescent or with simple or branched hairs, unarmed.   (24)
21 (20) Fruit orange-red; seeds yellowish, compressed discoid with a conspicuous orbicular wing, 4-6 mm in diam. (including wings)   32 Solanum capsicoides
+ Fruit light yellow; seeds brown, lenticular, unwinged, less than 4 mm in diam.   (22)
22 (21) Plants villous with mixed stellate and simple, partly glandular hairs; pericarp more than 1 cm thick.   (23)
+ Plants minutely tomentose with simple, many-celled, mostly glandular hairs, only leaves sparsely stellate abaxially; pericarp less than 1 cm thick   30 Solanum aculeatissimum
23 (22) Stems pilose with some hairs 2 mm; leaf lobes sharp pointed; ovary glabrous; corolla purple   33 Solanum mammosum
+ Stems densely tomentose with hairs less than 1 mm long; leaf lobes blunt tipped; ovary and young fruit pubescent; corolla white or green   31 Solanum viarum
24 (20) Leaves pinnately compound, at least in part.   (25)
+ Leaves entire or variously parted, but not compound.   (27)
25 (24) Leaves interruptedly odd-pinnate compound, usually with interstitial leaflets, viscid pubescent; pedicel articulated well above middle; foliage strongly odorous when crushed; calyx divided nearly halfway; underground tubers present   19 Solanum tuberosum
+ Leaves with 1 or 2 pairs of basal leaflets, mostly not glandular, sometimes glabrous; pedicel base articulate or not at all; foliage hardly odorous; calyx lobes short or absent; underground tubers absent.   (26)
26 (25) Plants glabrous; leaves usually 5-9-parted; calyx subtruncate; anthers free   17 Solanum seaforthianum
+ Plants pubescent; leaves entire or 3-5-parted; calyx with short distinct lobes; anthers connate   11 Solanum dulcamara
27 (24) Shrubs; leaves large, often lobed to near midvein, lobes narrow; corolla lobes notched at apex; fruit nodding, orange-yellow, ellipsoid   1 Solanum laciniatum
+ Herbs or vines, if shrubs then leaves unlobed or lobes broad; corolla lobes entire; fruit various.   (28)
28 (27) Inflorescences solitary or paired flowers, or unbranched, often umbellate racemes (branched in S. merrillianum); mostly shrubs or herbs.   (29)
+ Inflorescences paniculate, mostly many flowered, peduncle branched; often climbers.   (36)
29 (28) Shrubs; leaves borne on woody stems, all entire, mostly unequal paired; style and filaments glabrous.   (30)
+ Herbs or woody vines; leaves borne on herbaceous shoots, often dentate or sinuate, all alike; style and filaments pubescent.   (32)
30 (29) Peduncle and rachis short or obsolete, 1(-3)-flowered; pubescence of branched hairs; fruit bright orange-red   10 Solanum pseudocapsicum
+ Peduncle evident, rachis elongate, several to many flowered; pubescence of simple hairs; fruit pale, dull orange or yellow.   (31)
31 (30) Berry often less than 1 cm in diam.; corolla less than 1 cm; anthers less than 2.5 mm; pedicel less than 1 cm; leaves glabrous, minor ones rounded at apex   3 Solanum diphyllum
+ Berry more than 1.1 cm in diam.; corolla more than 1 cm; anthers more than 2.5 mm; pedicel more than 1 cm; leaves with tufts of hairs in axils of main veins abaxially, minor ones acute at apex   4 Solanum spirale
32 (29) Woody vines; peduncle often branched; anthers 1.5-1.7 mm   6 Solanum merrillianum
+ Herbs; peduncle unbranched; anthers various in length.   (33)
33 (32) Fruit yellow, orange, or reddish, broadly ellipsoid; plants villous   9 Solanum villosum
+ Fruit black or rarely green, globose; plants glabrescent or puberulent.   (34)
34 (33) Anthers less than 1.5 mm; fruiting calyx strongly reflexed; fruit less than 8 mm in diam., shiny; corolla less than 5 mm   5 Solanum americanum
+ Anthers more than 2 mm; fruiting calyx reflexed or not; fruit mostly more than 8 mm in diam., somewhat shiny or dull; corolla more than 5 mm.   (35)
35 (34) Fruiting calyx applied to berry; berry dull black; plants copiously and evidently pubescent with erect and spreading hairs; leaves dentate or subentire, ovate to lanceolate   7 Solanum nigrum
+ Fruiting calyx reflexed from berry; berry slightly shiny, black or purple; plants with inconspicuous appressed hairs; leaves mostly subentire, ovate, rhomboid, or rounded   8 Solanum scabrum
36 (28) Style pubescent; filaments laterally ciliate; fruit black; leaves sinuate, dentate, or entire, not lobed   6 Solanum merrillianum
+ Style and filaments glabrous; fruit red, orange, or yellow; leaves entire or lobed.   (37)
37 (36) Leaves pinnately 5-9-parted.   (38)
+ Leaves all entire or with 1(-3) pairs of basal lobes.   (39)
38 (37) Plants glabrous; calyx truncate with minute lobes; corolla purple or white; fruit 1-2 cm   17 Solanum seaforthianum
+ Plants pubescent; calyx with evident lobes, sinuses deltate; corolla greenish purple; fruit less than 1 cm   18 Solanum septemlobum
39 (37) Stems and inflorescences villous with erect, many-celled hairs more than 2 mm   15 Solanum lyratum
+ Stems and inflorescences glabrous or pubescent with ± appressed hairs less than 2 mm.   (40)
40 (39) Anthers connate; leaf base truncate or cordate.   (41)
+ Anthers free; leaf base rounded or cuneate.   (42)
41 (40) Herbs; leaves mostly with 1 (or 2) pairs of basal lobes; seeds less than 2.5 mm; calyx lobes deltate   11 Solanum dulcamara
+ Subshrubs; leaves entire; seeds more than 2.5 mm; calyx truncate or sinuate, lobes minute, pointed   14 Solanum kitagawae
42 (40) Leaves undulate-dentate or lobed; emergent growth with long simple hairs   13 Solanum japonense
+ Leaves all entire; emergent growth often glabrous.   (43)
43 (42) Leaves puberulent; anthers less than 2 mm; fruit mostly less than 8 mm in diam.; seeds less than 2 mm in diam.   12 Solanum hidetaroi
+ Leaves glabrescent; anthers more than 2 mm; fruit mostly more than 8 mm in diam.; seeds more than 2 mm in diam.   16 Solanum pittosporifolium

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