21. Utricularia vulgaris Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 18. 1753.
狸藻 li zao
Perennials, suspended aquatic. Rhizoids usually present, filiform, with dichotomously divided branches. Stolons filiform, branched. Traps on leaf segments, stalked, ovoid, 1.5-5 mm, mouth lateral; appendages 2, dorsal, simple or branched, setiform, with shorter simple lateral setae. Leaves numerous on stolons, 1.5-6 cm, divided from base into 2 unequal primary segments; primary segments ovate, elliptic, or ovate-oblong in outline, pinnately divided into secondary segments; secondary segments dichotomously divided into many further segments; ultimate segments capillary, slightly flattened, apically and laterally minutely setulose, without or sometimes with short marginal teeth. Inflorescences erect, 10-30 cm, 3-12-flowered, glabrous; peduncle terete, 1-2.4 mm thick; scales 1-4, similar to bracts; bracts basifixed, broadly ovate, 3-7 mm, base cordate to auriculate, apex acute to obtuse. Pedicel erect at anthesis but decurved in fruit, terete, 0.6-1.5 cm; bracteoles absent. Calyx lobes ovate, 2.5-5 mm, glandular; lower lobe slightly shorter than upper lobe, apex obtuse to emarginate; upper lobe apex acute to subacute. Corolla yellow, 1.2-2 cm; lower lip transversely elliptic to broadly ovate, base with prominent swelling, margin strongly deflexed, apex retuse; spur narrowly conic to narrowly cylindric from a conic base, shorter than or ± as long as corolla lower lip, straight or curved upward, apex slightly obtuse; palate distal 1/2 covered with short hairs and stipitate glands; upper lip broadly ovate, ca. 2 × as long as upper calyx lobe, apex retuse to truncate. Filaments ca. 2 mm, curved; anther thecae ± distinct. Ovary globose, densely glandular; style evident; stigma lower lip suborbicular and ciliate, upper lip truncate to broadly deltoid. Capsule globose, ca. 5 mm in diam., circumscissile. Seeds prismatic, 0.3-0.4 × 0.5-0.7 mm, 4-6-angled, narrowly winged on all angles; seed coat with small prominent slightly elongate reticulations. Fl. Jun-Aug, fr. Jul-Sep.
Lakes, pools, ditches, rivers, rice fields; near sea level to 3700 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang [Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, Uzbekistan; N Africa, SW Asia, Europe, North America].