1. Codonopsis lanceolata (Siebold & Zuccarini) Trautvetter, Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada. 6: 46. 1879.
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Campanumoea lanceolata Siebold & Zuccarini, Fl. Jap. 1: 174. 1841; C. japonica Siebold ex E. Morren; Codonopsis bodinieri H. Léveillé; Glosocomia lanceolata (Siebold & Zuccarini) Maximowicz.
Plants glabrous throughout or occasionally sparsely villous on stems and leaves. Caudexes subcylindrical. Roots usually fusiform-thickened, 10-20 × 1-6 cm. Stems twining, yellow-green but with purplish shade, more than 100 cm, often branched. Leaves on main stems alternate, lanceolate, ovate, or elliptic, 8-14 × 3-7 mm; usually leaves 2-4-fascicled on top of branchlets, subopposite or verticillate, petiole 1-5 mm; blade abaxially gray-green, adaxially green, ovate, narrowly ovate, or elliptic, 3-12 × 1.3-5.5 cm, abaxially rarely hirsute, veins obvious, base attenuate or sometimes rounded, margin usually entire or sparsely sinuate, occasionally revolute and hispid, apex acute or obtuse. Flowers solitary or paired on top of branchlets; pedicels 1-9 cm. Calyx adnate to ovary by half; tube hemispherical; lobes ovate or deltoid, 1-3 × 0.5-1 cm, entire, acute; sinus between calyx lobes acute or gradually becoming broader after anthesis. Corolla broadly campanulate, 2-4 × 2-3.5 cm, shallowly lobed; lobes yellow-green or milk-white, with purple spots, deltoid, 0.5-1 cm, revolute. Disk dark green, fleshy. Filaments subulate, slightly dilated at base, 4-6 mm; anthers 3-5 mm; ovary inferior. Capsule hemispherical at base, rostrate toward apex, 1.6-3.5 cm in diam. Seeds numerous, brown, winged, seed body oblong or ellipsoid. Fl. and fr. Jul-Aug. 2n = 16.
Shrublands, broad-leaved forests; 200-1500 m. Anhui, Fujian, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Shandong, Shanxi, Zhejiang [Japan, Korea, Russia (Far East)].