2. Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pavon, Syst. Veg. Fl. Peruv. Chil. 1: 198. 1798.
粗毛牛膝菊 cu mao niu xi ju
Adventina ciliata Rafinesque; Galinsoga ciliata (Rafinesque) S. F. Blake.
Plants 8-62 cm. Leaf blade 20-60 × 15-45 mm. Peduncles 5-20 mm; involucres hemispheric to campanulate, 3-6 mm in diam.; phyllaries deciduous; outer paleae deciduous, broadly elliptic to obovate, 2-3 mm, inner deciduous, linear to lanceolate, 2-3 mm, entire or 2- or 3-lobed, lobes to 1/3 total lengths, blunt. Ray florets (4 or)5(-8); corollas usually white, sometimes pink, lamina 0.9-2.5 × 0.9-2 mm. Disk florets 15-35. Ray achenes 1.5-2 mm; pappus of 6-15 fimbriate scales 0.5-1 mm; disk achenes 1.3-1.8 mm; pappus absent or of usually 14-20, rarely 1-5, white, lanceolate to oblanceolate, fimbriate, sometimes aristate, scales 0.2-1.7 mm. Fl. Jul-Oct. 2n = 32, 48, 64.
Forests, roadsides. Jiangxi; recently naturalized in Taiwan [native to C Mexico but widespread naturally in South America].
The occurrence of this species in Taiwan was first reported by C. I Peng et al. (Taiwania 43: 320-329. 1998).