11. Tragopogon porrifolius Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 789. 1753.
蒜叶婆罗门参 suan ye po luo men shen
Herbs 40-125 cm tall, biennial or annual. Stem erect, simple or branched from middle third, glabrous or slightly tomentulose. Basal and lower cauline leaves lanceolate or linear, 15-40 × 0.3-0.7 cm, marginally often undulate. 6-12 mm in diam.; peduncle inflated. Capitula solitary to few. Involucre 4-5 cm at anthesis, to 8 cm in fruit. Phyllaries 7 or 8, ca. 1/3 longer than florets and ± equaling achenes with pappus. Ligules violet. Outer achenes 3.7-4.5 cm; body pale brown, curviform, 1.4-1.6 mm in diam.; beak whitish, 2-2.5 cm, slender, smooth, apically inflated; pappus disk ± tomentulose. Pappus dirty white, 2.7-3.7 cm. Fl. and fr. May-Aug. 2n = 12.
700-2000 m. Naturalized or cultivated in Beijing, Guizhou, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, and Yunnan [native to Europe].
Tragopogon porrifolius is naturalized in S Africa, Asia, Australia, North America, and perhaps Oceania.
This is a polyphyletic taxon. The relationship of Chinese plants requires more investigation.