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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae

55. Tragopogon Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 789. 1753.

婆罗门参属 po luo men shen shu

Authors: Zhu Shi, Alexander P. Sukhorukov & Evgeny V. Mavrodiev

Herbs, perennial, biennial, or rarely annual, glabrous or tomentulose to floccose [or lanate] especially at leaf bases and below capitula, often glabrescent; if biennial then vertical roots spindle-shaped; if perennial then with well-developed caudex. Stem simple or sparingly branched. Leaves basal and cauline, sessile, linear, lanceolate, or narrowly oblong, margin entire or undulate. Capitulum terminal, solitary or sometimes capitula few to many, large, with (20-)40-180 or more florets; peduncle often apically inflated and normally without bracts. Involucre cylindric at anthesis, mostly 10-20 mm or more in diam. Phyllaries 5-15(or 16), in 1(or 2) row(s), linear-lanceolate, triangular-lanceolate, or linear, ± equal, abaxially glabrous [with intertwining hairs], margins white and narrowly pellucid, apex acute. Receptacle naked. Florets with ligules yellow, mauve, orange, purple, or violet. Achene dark to pale brown, straw-colored, or whitish, heteromorphic, outer ones ± cylindric or curviform (fusiform), central ones cylindric and less tuberculate or smooth; achene body normally tuberculate, with 5 fairly well-differentiated ribs, with or rarely without hollows in pericarp; beak slender or stout if present; pappus disk ± pubescent. Pappus persistent, dirty white, yellowish, or slightly fulvous; awns 12-20 or more in 1 or 2 rows, unequal, softly fimbriately plumose, apically scabrid.

More than 150 species: mainly in C and SW Asia and S Europe; 19 species (two endemic, one introduced) in China.

1 Outer achenes (without pappus) 3.7-4.5 cm; ligules violet; cultivated/alien biennial or annual plants.   11 T. porrifolius
+ Outer achenes (without pappus) not more than 3.5 cm; ligules of various colors; non-cultivated perennial or biennial plants   (2)
2 (1) Peduncle mostly reduced; small plants to 20 cm tall.   18 T. verrucosobracteatus
+ Peduncle not reduced, always well developed; plants also taller   (3)
3 (2) Pappus awns clearly unequal, longest 2-5 ca. 7 mm and remainder ca. 4 mm; achenes 1-1.3 cm, beakless.   19 T. heteropappus
+ Pappus awns slightly unequal, length ratio ca. 1.2:1; outer achenes longer than 2 cm   (4)
4 (3) Peduncle with dark hairs; ligules violet; plants biennial.   17 T. sibiricus
+ Peduncle glabrous or tomentulose to floccose; florets of various colors; plants biennial or perennial   (5)
5 (4) Perennial polycarpics 10-35(-40) cm tall; ligules mauve, violet, purplish, rarely (T. gracilis) adaxially yellow but then abaxially with pink or mauve spot   (6)
+ Biennial monocarpics 40-150 cm tall; ligules yellow or yellowish orange   (12)
6 (5) Outer achenes (without pappus) 1-2 cm, body pale brown, 1.2-1.6 mm in diam., and terete or sometimes with 5 fairly well-differentiated ribs, beak slender, 0.2-0.6 mm in diam.; hollows in pericarp 40-50 µm in diam.; pappus dirty white; plants to 20(-30) cm tall   (7)
+ Outer achenes (without pappus) (1.8-)2-2.7(-3) cm, body whitish or sometimes with a tinge of red, (1.7-)1.8-2.6 mm in diam., and always with 5 fairly well-differentiated ribs, beak stout, 0.9-1.1 mm in diam.; hollows in pericarp more than 60 µm in diam.; pappus fulvous or fulvous tinged with red; plants (15-)20-40 cm tall   (8)
7 (6) Ligules adaxially yellow, abaxially with a pink or mauve spot; pappus always slightly longer than achene body.   9 T. gracilis
+ Ligules reddish purple; pappus equaling or slightly shorter than achene body.   10 T. subalpinus
8 (6) Achene:pappus ratio ca. 1.5:1; basal leaves lanceolate.   14 T. elongatus
+ Achene:pappus ratio 1-1.2:1; basal leaves oblong or elliptic   (9)
9 (8) Peduncle apically distinctly inflated.   12 T. kasachstanicus
+ Peduncle apically ± not inflated   (10)
10 (9) Plants glabrous.   16 T. montanus
+ Plants tomentulose to floccose   (11)
11 (10) Beak of outer achenes well differentiated from body.   13 T. marginifolius
+ Beak of outer achenes slightly differentiated from body.   15 T. ruber
12 (5) Peduncle apically distinctly inflated   (13)
+ Peduncle apically not or only slightly inflated   (16)
13 (12) Outer achenes (without pappus) 2-2.3 cm, body 2-2.5 mm in diam., beak 2-5 mm and stout.   7 T. sabulosus
+ Outer achenes (without pappus) more than 2.3 cm, body to 2 mm in diam., beak 0.7-1.7 cm and slender   (14)
14 (13) Phyllaries 6-9 cm; outer achenes with pappus 5.5-7 cm.   1 T. capitatus
+ Phyllaries 4-5.5(-6) cm; outer achenes with pappus 4.4-6 cm   (15)
15 (14) Number of phyllaries 5-8.   2 T. pseudomajor
+ Number of phyllaries (8-)10-12(-14).   3 T. dubius
16 (12) Outer achene with beak to 3 mm or without beak; plants floccose.   8 T. stepposus
+ Outer achene with beak more than 5 mm; plants glabrous   (17)
17 (16) Phyllaries slightly longer than florets.   4 T. songoricus
+ Phyllaries shorter than florets   (18)
18 (17) Ligules yellowish orange; outer achenes (without pappus) ca. 1.7 cm.   5 T. altaicus
+ Ligules pure yellow; outer achenes (without pappus) (1.8-)2-2.5 cm.   6 T. orientalis

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