4. Aristida chinensis Munro, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts. 4: 363. 1860.
华三芒草 hua san mang cao
Aristida formosana Honda.
Perennial. Culms densely tufted, erect, wiry, 30–60 cm tall, unbranched. Leaf sheaths smooth, longer than internodes, bearded at mouth; leaf blades involute, filiform, curling when dry, 10–20 cm, abaxial surface smooth, adaxial surface pubescent; ligule ca. 0.2 mm. Panicle ovate in outline, open, 1/2 length of plant or more, 20–30 cm; branches 3–15 cm, divaricate, solitary or in small widely spaced groups along central axis, bearded in axils, strongly scabrid, lower part naked, spikelets clustered distally. Spikelets gray-green or purple; glumes unequal with lower longer, linear-lanceolate, 1–3-veined, acuminate-mucronate, lower glume 8–14 mm, scabrid on vein, upper glume 1/2–2/3 length of lower, smooth; callus ca. 0.5 mm; lemma 5–8 mm, terete, smooth; awn branches arising directly from lemma apex, central branch 1–1.5 cm, laterals slightly shorter or subequal to central branch. Anthers 1–2 mm. Fl. and fr. Apr–Dec.
Grassy hill slopes. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan [Cambodia, Indonesia (Celebes), Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam].
This is a species of local distribution, easily distinguished by its large, open, scabrid panicle and spikelets with inverted glumes (lower glume longer).