4. Cypripedium calceolus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 951. 1753.
杓兰 shao lan
Plants 20-45 cm tall, with a somewhat stout rhizome. Stem erect, with glandular hairs, with several sheaths at base and 3 or 4 leaves above middle. Leaf blade elliptic or ovate-elliptic, rarely ovate-lanceolate, 7-16 × 4-7 cm, abaxially sparsely pubescent especially on veins and toward base, minutely ciliate, apex acute or shortly acuminate. Inflorescence terminal, usually 1- or 2-flowered; floral bracts foliaceous, elliptic-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 4-6(-10) × 1.5-4 cm; pedicel and ovary ca. 3 cm, with short glandular hairs. Flowers with maroon sepals and petals and yellow lip. Dorsal sepal ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 2.5-5 × 0.8-1.5 cm, abaxial midvein sparsely pubescent, apex acuminate or cuspidate-acuminate; synsepal similar to dorsal sepal, apex shallowly 2-lobed. Petals twisted, linear or linear-lanceolate, 3-5 × 0.4-0.6 cm, pubescent toward adaxial base and on abaxial veins; lip deeply pouched, ellipsoid, 3-4 × 2-3 cm, outside glabrous, inner bottom hairy; incurved lateral lobes 3-4 mm wide. Staminode suboblong-elliptic, 7-10 × 5-7 mm, abaxially carinate, base with a stalk ca. 1 mm, apex obtuse. Fl. Jun-Jul. 2n = 20.
Rocky places in forests, forest margins, grasslands; 500-1000 m. Heilongjiang, E Jilin, Liaoning, NE Nei Mongol [Japan, Korea, Russia; Europe].