1. Gymnadenia conopsea (Linnaeus) R. Brown in W. T. Aiton, Hortus Kew., ed. 2. 5: 191. 1813.
手参 shou shen
Orchis conopsea Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 942. 1753; Gymnadenia conopsea var. latifolia Schlechter; G. conopsea var. ussuriensis Regel; G. sibirica Turczaninow ex Lindley; Habenaria conopsea (Linnaeus) Bentham.
Plants slender to robust, 20-60 cm tall. Tubers ovoid, 1-3.5 cm, with many short, slender lobes. Stem stout, with 2 or 3 tubular sheaths at base and 3-5 cauline leaves. Leaves widely spaced or clustered, linear-lanceolate, narrowly oblong, or lorate, 5.5-20 × 0.8-2(-2.5) cm, apex acuminate to subobtuse. Inflorescence 11-26 cm, slender; peduncle with 1 to a few scattered, lanceolate bracts 1.5-6 cm; rachis 4-12 cm, densely many flowered; floral bracts lanceolate, often longer than ovary and flower, apex long acuminate-caudate. Flowers fragrant, pink, rarely pinkish white; ovary 5-8 mm including pedicel. Dorsal sepal broadly elliptic to broadly ovate-elliptic, 3.5-5 × 3-4 mm, 3-veined, slightly concave, apex acute; lateral sepals reflexed, obliquely ovate, 4-5.5 × 3-4 mm, 3-veined, margin revolute, apex acute. Petals obliquely ovate-triangular, 3.5-5 × 3-4 mm, 3-veined, apex acute; lip spreading, broadly cuneate-obovate, 4-5 × 4-5 mm, 3-lobed at apex; lateral lobes elliptic to broadly ovate, 1.8-3 mm wide, apex obtuse or occasionally truncate; mid-lobe triangular, 1-2 mm wide, usually smaller than lateral lobes, apex obtuse to acute; spur pendulous, curved forward, 10-14 mm, exceeding ovary, slender. Column 1-1.5 mm; viscidia linear-oblong. Fl. Jul-Aug. 2n = 30, 40, 42, 80, 100, 120.
Forests, grasslands, waterlogged meadows; 200-4700 m. SE Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shanxi, N and W Sichuan, SE Xizang, NW Yunnan [Japan, Korea, Russia; Europe].
The extensive extra-Chinese synonymy is not cited here.