Ophrys monorchis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 947. 1753; Arachnites monorchis (Linnaeus) Hoffmann; Epipactis monorchis (Linnaeus) F. W. Schmidt; Herminium alaschanicum Maximowicz var. tanguticum Maximowicz; H. tanguticum (Maximowicz) Rolfe; Monorchis herminium O. Schwarz; Orchis monorchis (Linnaeus) Allioni; Satyrium monorchis (Linnaeus) Persoon.
Plants 5.5-35 cm tall. Tubers globose to ellipsoid, 6-10 × 5-10 mm. Stem with 1 or 2 tubular sheaths at base, 2-leaved. Leaves basal and subopposite to cauline, widely spaced and alternate, elliptic to elliptic-lanceolate, 1.5-10 × 0.5-2.5 cm, apex acute. Inflorescence 3.5-24 cm; peduncle cylindric, with 1 or 2 ovate-lanceolate sterile bracts 0.5-5.5 cm, lower one occasionally foliaceous; rachis 1-11 cm, densely or occasionally ± laxly many flowered; floral bracts linear-lanceolate, 2-3 mm, shorter than ovary, apex acuminate-cuspidate. Flowers fragrant, nodding, yellowish green; ovary distinctly hooked toward apex, 3-5 mm including pedicel. Dorsal sepal suberect, oblong-ovate, ca. 2.2 × 1.2 mm, 1-veined, apex obtuse; lateral sepals weakly spreading, oblong-ovate, ca. 2 × 1 mm, 1-veined, apex subacute. Petals forming a hood, rhombic, ca. 2.5 × 1 mm, somewhat fleshy, 1-veined, sometimes obscurely 3-lobed near middle, apex acute; lip spreading to decurved, oblong-obovate, 2.2-5 × 1.2-1.5 mm, slightly fleshy, base attenuate and shallowly concave, furcately 3-lobed near middle; lateral lobes linear-triangular, 0.8-1.5 mm, apex acute; mid-lobe linear-triangular, 1.5-3.2 mm, longer and broader than lateral lobes, apex acute. Column to 1 mm; pollinia subglobose; viscidia large, involute, hornlike. Fl. Jul-Aug. 2n = 38, 40, 42.
Broad-leaved forests, coniferous forests, thickets, grasslands, grassy swamps, flood lands; 600-4500 m. Anhui, Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, N and NW Yunnan [India (Sikkim), Japan, Kashmir, Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia; C and W Asia, Europe].