16. Murdannia loriformis (Hasskarl) R. S. Rao & Kammathy, Bull. Bot. Surv. India. 3: 393. 1961.
牛轭草 niu e cao
Aneilema loriforme Hasskarl in Miquel, Pl. Jungh. 2: 143. 1852; A. angustifolium N. E. Brown; A. nudiflorum (Linnaeus) R. Brown var. rigidior Bentham; A. terminale Wight.
Herbs perennial. Roots fibrous, 0.5--1 mm in diam., glabrous or tomentose. Rhizomes absent. Main stem undeveloped; fertile stems several, arising from rosette, diffuse or ascending, 15--50(--100) cm, glabrous or puberulent on 1 side, very rarely densely hirsute. Basal leaves with blade linear, 5--15(--30) cm × 6--9 mm, margin ciliate only proximally; cauline leaves shorter, ciliate only on 1 side of sheath mouth, glabrous elsewhere, very rarely densely hirsutulous. Cincinni terminal, solitary or 2 or 3 forming a panicle, subcapitate, of several densely arranged flowers; proximal involucral bracts leaflike but smaller than leaves, distal ones very small, less than 10 mm; peduncle ca. 2.5 cm; bracts ca. 4 mm, caducous; pedicels slightly curved, 2.5--4 mm in fruit. Sepals ovate-elliptic, ca. 3 mm, herbaceous. Petals purple-red or blue, obovate-orbicular. Fertile stamens 2; filaments pubescent; staminodes 3; antherodes 3-sect. Capsule ovoid-globose, trigonous, 3--4 mm. Seeds 2 per valve, yellow-brown, radiate striate, finely white reticulate, neither pitted nor verrucose. Fl. May--Oct.
Forests, grassy slopes. Anhui, E and N Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, SW Guizhou (Wangmo Xian), Hainan, SE Hunan (Yizhang Xian), Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang (Mêdog Xian), S Yunnan (Jianshui Xian), S Zhejiang (Longquan Xian, Pingyang Xian) [E India, Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
Murdannia loriformis was long treated as conspecific with M. nudiflora and they are indeed very similar in habit, inflorescence, capsule, etc. However, M. loriformis differs as follows: main stem undeveloped; sheaths of cauline leaves ciliate only on 1 side of mouth; cincinni subcapitate; pedicels slightly curved; seeds finely white reticulate, neither pitted nor verrucose.