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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 24 | Commelinaceae

8. Murdannia Royle, Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. 403, plate 95, fig. 3. 1840.
[nom. cons.]

水竹叶属 shui zhu ye shu

Baoulia A. Chevalier; Dichaespermum Wight; Dilasia Rafinesque, nom. rej.; Phaeneilema Brückner; Prionostachys Hasskarl; Streptylis Rafinesque, nom. rej.

Herbs perennial, sometimes annual. Roots often fusiform thickened. Rhizomes present or absent. Stems creeping or ascending, sometimes scapiform. Leaves alternate and linear, or in a basal rosette on infertile main stems. Cincinni solitary or numerous, forming panicles, sometimes shortened into heads, sometimes reduced to solitary flowers. Flowers actinomorphic. Sepals free, shallowly to strongly boat-shaped. Petals free, purple, blue, pink, yellow, or nearly white, orbicular or obovate. Fertile stamens 3, sometimes 1(or 2) abortive; filaments glabrous or hairy; anther locules longitudinally dehiscent; staminodes (absent to)3(or 4), inserted opposite petals; antherodes sagittate or 3-sect. Ovary 3-loculed; ovules 1--7 per locule. Capsule 3-valved, ovoid, ellipsoid, or globose. Seeds 1 or 2 per valve, uniseriate, quadrangular, reticulate, pitted, rugose, or verrucose; hilum orbicular.

About 50 species: tropical and subtropical regions, mainly in Asia; 20 species (six endemic) in China.

1 Antherodes sagittate; flowers 1--5 in fascicles in leaf axils; plants aquatic or halophytic herbs, with elongate and horizontal rhizomes.   (2)
+ Antherodes 3-sect; panicles terminal or cincinni numerous and aggregated in spathelike involucral bracts (in latter case pedicels with sheathlike, membranous bracteoles); plants terrestrial herbs, mostly without elongate and horizontal rhizomes.   (5)
2 (1) Leaf blade elliptic-ovate or ovate-cordate, more than 8 mm wide.   (3)
+ Leaf blade linear-lanceolate, (20--)30--60 × 5--8 mm.   (4)
3 (2) Leaf blade ovate-cordate or ovate; capsule more than 2.5 mm in diam.   2 Murdannia citrina
+ Leaf blade ovate; capsule less than 2 mm in diam.   1 Murdannia yunnanensis
4 (2) Capsule oblong, trigonous, 5--7 × 3--4 mm, subobtuse at both ends; seeds not flattened; sepals 4--6 mm   3 Murdannia triquetra
+ Capsule long ellipsoid, obscurely trigonous, 8--10 × 2--3 mm, acute at both ends; seeds flattened; sepals 6--10 mm   4 Murdannia keisak
5 (1) Stems scapiform, leafless; leaves all basal; roots fusiform thickened, densely tomentose   8 Murdannia edulis
+ Stems ± leafy.   (6)
6 (5) Involucral bracts sheathlike, bladeless, subequal, more than 5 mm, with several to numerous 1-flowered cymes.   (7)
+ Involucral bracts not sheathlike, distal ones gradually becoming shorter, cymes not 1-flowered.   (9)
7 (6) Roots not thickened; sheathlike involucral bracts distant, only 2 or 3 on each stem; capsule with 1 seed per valve   7 Murdannia vaginata
+ Roots fusiform thickened; sheathlike involucral bracts dense, at least apical ones connate; capsule with several seeds per valve.   (8)
8 (7) Leaf blade linear, less than 6 mm wide; roots more than 4 cm, fusiform thickened in middle; involucral bracts glabrous   5 Murdannia medica
+ Leaf blade more than 10 mm wide; roots much shorter, mostly only ca. 2 cm, fusiform thickened near apex, sometimes not thickened; involucral bracts hirsute   6 Murdannia spectabilis
9 (6) Valves 3- to numerous seeded; flowers distant, never in heads.   (10)
+ Valves 2-seeded; flowers dense; cincinni capitate at anthesis, capitate or not in fruit; leaf blade linear.   (15)
10 (9) Stems erect, not rooting at nodes; plants without elongate rhizomes.   (11)
+ Stems ± prostrate proximally; plants with long, horizontal rhizomes.   (13)
11 (10) Main stem abortive (inflorescences borne on lateral stems); leaf blade narrowly elliptic, (1.5--)2--4.5 cm wide, often with a yellowish white, undulate band at margin; capsule ca. 5 mm   10 Murdannia japonica
+ Main stem developed; leaf blade narrower, linear to narrowly lanceolate, usually less than 1.5 cm wide, without white, undulate band at margin; capsule 6.5--15 mm.   (12)
12 (11) Capsule 15--17 mm; leaf blade 40--50 cm; plants to 1 m tall   9 Murdannia macrocarpa
+ Capsule 6.5--8 mm; leaf blade 5--15 cm; plants 15--60 cm tall   11 Murdannia divergens
13 (10) Capsule 3--4 mm; stems slender, creeping for greater part; leaf blade long ovate to lanceolate, less than 3.5 cm   13 Murdannia spirata
+ Capsule 5--7 mm; stems robust, creeping only proximally; leaf blade lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 5--12 cm.   (14)
14 (13) Valves ca. 3-seeded; inflorescences nearly as long as distal leaves; leaf blade 1--2.2 cm wide, with straight margin   14 Murdannia hookeri
+ Valves ca. 7-seeded; inflorescences much exceeding distal leaves; leaf blade 3--3.5 cm wide, undulate at margin   12 Murdannia undulata
15 (9) Seeds pitted, or shallowly pitted and white verrucose; main stem developed; pedicels thin but straight; most leaf sheaths hirsute throughout, sometimes hirsute on 1 side only   15 Murdannia nudiflora
+ Seeds not pitted but with other kinds of sculpturing; main stems abortive, with rosulate leaves; pedicels curved or straight; leaf sheaths mostly hirsute only on mouth side.   (16)
16 (15) Roots slender, fibrous, less than 1 mm in diam.; stems often creeping, rooting at proximal nodes; cincinni only 1 or 2(or 3), capitate at anthesis, capitate or nearly so in fruit.   (17)
+ Roots robust, 1--3 mm in diam.; stems erect or ascending; cincinni often 3 or more, forming panicles, never capitate in fruit.   (18)
17 (16) Cincinni densely capitate; pedicels strongly curved in fruit; bracts 5--7 mm, sub-persistent; basal leaves 20--30 × 1.2--1.8 cm   17 Murdannia bracteata
+ Cincinni subcapitate; pedicels slightly curved in fruit; bracts ca. 4 mm, caducous; basal leaves 5--15(--30) × 0.6--0.9 cm   16 Murdannia loriformis
18 (16) Roots ca. 1 mm in diam.; basal leaf blades 3--5 mm wide; seeds radiate striate   20 Murdannia kainantensis
+ Roots 2--3 mm in diam.; basal leaf blades 0.6--1.5 cm wide; seeds white radiate verrucose.   (19)
19 (18) Capsule 4--5 mm; sepals ca. 4 mm; leaf sheaths hirsute only on 1 side   18 Murdannia simplex
+ Capsule 6--7 mm; sepals 5--6 mm; leaf sheaths villous throughout, sometimes proximal ones hairy only on 1 side   19 Murdannia stenothyrsa

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