1. Matthiola chorassanica Bunge ex Boissier, Fl. Orient. 1: 151. 1867.
伊朗紫罗兰 yi lang zi luo lan
Matthiola flavida Boissier var. integrifolia (Komarov) O. E. Schulz; M. integrifolia Komarov; M. tenera K. H. Rechinger.
Herbs perennial, (10-)15-45(-53) cm tall, eglandular, tomentose throughout, with finely branched dendritic trichomes; caudex simple or branched. Stems erect, branched from caudex, sometimes also above. Basal leaves subrosulate; petiole (0.5-)1-3(-5) cm; leaf blade ovate, narrowly oblong, or elliptic, (1-)2-4.5(-6) × (0.3-)0.5-1.8(-2.4) cm, base cuneate, margin entire, repand, or coarsely dentate, rarely sinuate or pinnatifid, apex acute or obtuse. Cauline leaves few to many, similar to basal, uppermost much narrower and subsessile. Fruiting pedicels (1-)2-6(-10) mm, stout or slender, divaricate or ascending. Sepals linear, 8-12 × 1-1.5, tomentose. Petals greenish, brown, or purplish; limb linear, circinately involute, crisped, 0.9-1.4 cm × 1.2-1.5 mm, apex obtuse; claw flattened, 0.8-1.2 cm. Median filament pairs 6-8 mm, lateral pair 3-4 mm; anthers linear, ca. 2.5 mm. Fruit narrowly linear, (6-)7-11 cm × (1.5-) 1.8-2.7 mm, flattened, torulose; valves tomentose, with a prominent midvein; style obsolete or to 1 mm; stigma conical, lobes broad. Seeds 2-2.5 × 1.7-2 mm; wing ca. 0.5 mm. Fl. Jun-Jul, fr. Jul-Aug. 2n = 12.
Rocky slopes; 900-3900 m. Xinjiang, Xizang [Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan; SW Asia].
The above first record from China is based on Schlagintweit 1375 (P), Schlagintweit 1485 (GH), Winterbottom 712 (K), Falconer 138 (GH, P), and Thomson s.n. (E, K, P), all of which are from Xizang, as well as Team P-041 (PE) from Xijniang. The alleged differences between M. chorassanica and the synonyms listed above are based entirely on whether the cauline leaves are borne along the entire stem or are nearly basal, and whether they are entire, repand, or dentate. All of these characters show continuous variation, and there are no other differences that separate the taxa. Jafri (Fl. West Pakistan 55: 202. 1973) wrongly cited one of the above specimens, Winterbottom 712, as M. flavida Boissier, but that species has flat petals instead of the circinately involute ones that are characteristic of M. chorassanica.
The record from Xinjiang (Fl. Xinjiang. (2(2): 164. 1995) of Matthiola odoratissima (Pallas ex Marschall von Bieberstein) R. Brown, which is endemic to the Caucasus and neighboring areas, is based on misidentified plants of M. chorassanica.