2. Schoenoplectus litoralis (Schrader) Palla, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 10: 299. 1888.
羽状刚毛水葱 yu zhuang gang mao shui cong
Scirpus litoralis Schrader, Fl. Germ. 1: 142. 1806.
Rhizomes short; stolons long creeping, slender. Culms erect, 50-120 cm tall, 3-10 mm thick, 3-angled to obtusely 3-angled just below inflorescence, glaucous. Leaves reduced to a bladeless or a shortly laminate sheath. Involucral bract 1, simulating a continuation of culm, 2-5(-10) cm, erect, rigid. Inflorescence a pseudolateral simple or compound anthela, 4-6 cm, with few to many spikelets; rays slender, smooth. Spikelets solitary, reddish brown, ovoid to oblong-ovoid, 6-12 × 1.5-3 mm, terete, densely many flowered, apex ± acute. Glumes broadly elliptic, 3.5-4 × ca. 2 mm, membranous, margin broadly white hyaline and apically minutely ciliolate, apex obtuse to ± notched and with a prominent green vein excurrent into a short mucro. Perianth bristles (3 or)4(or 5), rust-colored, ligulate-spatulate, ± as long as nutlet, antrorsely scabrous, apically plumosely fringed. Stamens (2 or)3; anthers 1.5-2 mm; connective apex with a fimbriate appendage. Stigmas 3. Nutlet dark reddish brown to blackish, broadly obovoid, ca. 2 × 1.3 mm, biconvex, smooth. Fl. and fr. Jul-Sep. 2n = 42, 78, 80, 84.
Water margins, swampy places; ca. 600 m. Gansu, Ningxia, W Qinghai, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang [Afghanistan, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, W Mongolia, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam; Africa, SW Asia, Australia, Europe, Indian Ocean islands, Madagascar, Pacific Ocean islands].