4. Schoenoplectus litoralis (Schrad.) Palla, Bot. Jahrb. 10: 299. 1889; Kukkonen in Rech.f., l.c. 29.
Scirpus litoralis Schrad., Fl. Germanica 1: 142. 1806; R.R.Stewart, l.c. 102.
Perennial, 60-120 cm. Rhizome c. 2 mm diam., short, stoloniferous. Stem 3-6 mm diam., from sharply trigonous to obtusely trigonous above and terete below, smooth, green. Sheaths up to c. 25 cm, green, smooth, scarious side sometimes reddish, mouth deeply oblique with widely scarious margins; ligule 0.5-1 mm, scarious, margin smooth; blades mostly reduced, some up to 15 cm, sometimes longer, up to 5 mm wide, obtusely pointed, keeled, thick or channelled, margins smooth. Inflorescence a multiple spike or anthelodium, 20-90 mm; lowest bract to more than 12 cm, erect, trigonous in transverse section, edges smooth; primary branches 2-14, to 70 mm, smooth or slightly scabrous; tubular prophyll to 10 mm, mouth oblique or bilobed; secondary multiple spikes 30-40 mm diam., with 3-8 mostly solitary and pedunculate spikes, to 15 mm, with occasional tertiary multiple spikes of 3-4 spikes; tertiary branches up to 10 mm. Spikes as a rule solitary, occasionally 2 together, 7-18 x 3-5 mm, ovoid; glumes 3-4 mm, cymbiform, apex rounded, mucro to 0.7 mm, slightly recurved, sides obscurely nerved, brown, margins widely scarious. Perianth bristles 4, upper half plumose; stamens 3, anther c. 2 mm; stigmas 2. Nut 1.6-2.3 x 1.1-1.7 mm, obovoid, apiculate, bi-convex or almost plano-convex, mat or semi-glossy, very finely reticulate, dark brown.
Type: "In lacustribus, inundatis [Italia, Trieste,] Duini [Duino] et [Italia, Gorizia,] Monfalconii [Monfalcone] ([leg.] Wulfen)".
Distribution: S Europe, Southern Russia, Kazakhstan, W Mongolia, China, Japan (Okinawa), Africa, Madagascar, Pakistan, India, Thailand, Australia, N. Guinea, Micronesia.
Two subspecies are recognized in our region.