2. Bridelia retusa (Linnaeus) A. Jussieu, Euphorb. Gen. 109. 1824.
大叶土蜜树 da ye tu mi shu
Clutia retusa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1042. 1753; Bridelia cambodiana Gagnepain; B. fordii Hemsley; B. pierrei Gagnepain; B. spinosa (Roxburgh) Willdenow; Clutia spinosa Roxburgh.
Trees up to 15 m tall, to 35 cm d.b.h.; branches fulvous pubescent, later glabrous except for pubescent to pilose abaxial leaf surface, bracts on both surfaces, pedicels and sepals exterior, sometimes with spines. Stipules ovate-triangular, ca. 2 mm, caducous, but linear stipular traces persistent at lateral base of petiole; petiole 0.7-1.2 cm, slightly stout; leaf blade obovate, sometimes elliptic, 8-25 × 4-13 cm, papery or thinly leathery, base obtuse, rounded, or shallowly cordate, apex rounded or truncate, rarely acute, sometimes with short acumen; lateral veins (13-)16-23 pairs, subparallel, reticulate veins prominent, subparallel, anastomosing lateral veins. Inflorescences many flowered, grouped into axillary spikes or 3-9-spiked and grouped into panicles at apex of branchlets, 10-20 cm; bracts ovate-triangular, 1.5-3 mm. Male flowers small, 4-6 mm in diam., yellow-green to reddish brown; pedicels ca. 1 mm; sepals ovate-triangular, ca. 2 × 1 mm; petals obovate to spatulate, 0.8-1.6 mm, 3-5-toothed; disk cup-shaped, up to 1.5 mm in diam.; staminal column ca. 1.2 mm; free filaments ca. 1 mm; anthers broadly ovoid; rudimentary ovary terete, apex undivided. Female flowers: sepals as in male but slightly larger; petals spatulate, ca. 1 mm at apex; disk pulvinate and urceolate, enclosing and as long as ovary; ovary globose to ovoid, up to 2 mm tall; styles 2, bifid. Drupes ovoid or depressed globose, 7-8 × 5-9 mm, black, 2-celled. Seeds semiglobose with an adaxial groove, ca. 5 mm in diam., reddish brown, smooth. Fl. Apr-Sep, fr. Aug-Jan.
Deciduous to evergreen primary or secondary forests; 100-1400 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Yunnan [Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia (Sumatra), Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
The durable wood is used in various ways; the bark contains up to 40% tannin.