1. Bridelia stipularis (Linnaeus) Blume, Bijdr. 597. 1826.
土蜜藤 tu mi teng
Clutia stipularis Linnaeus, Mant. Pl. 1: 127. 1767; Bridelia scandens (Roxburgh) Willdenow; Clutia scandens Roxburgh.
Woody climbers or scandent shrubs, branches up to 15(-20) m, rarely small trees; branchlets usually markedly softly rufous tomentose or fulvous pubescent except for glabrous older branches, petals, ovary, and drupes. Stipules ovate-triangular, 3-9 × 2-4 mm, apex long acuminate, usually caducous; petiole 6-13 mm; leaf blade elliptic, obovate, or rotund, 4-17 × 2-11 cm, subleathery, base obtuse to rounded, apex acute or obtuse, rarely retuse; lateral veins 10-14 pairs. Inflorescences axillary, usually 2-6-flowered, sometimes grouped into many-flowered spikes or on terminal small-leaved branches. Male flowers 0.6-1 cm in diam.; pedicels very short, up to 1 mm; receptacle cup-shaped; sepals ovate-triangular, ca. 4 × 2.5 mm; petals spatulate, ca. 2 mm, 3-5-dentate; disk shallowly cup-shaped, 5-6 mm in diam.; staminal column ca. 2 mm; free filaments ca. 1.5 mm; anthers ovoid, ca. 1 × 0.5 mm; rudimentary ovary terete, apex bipartite. Female flowers up to 12 mm in diam.; pedicels short and stout; receptacle nearly funnel-shaped; sepals ovate-triangular, ca. 4 × 2-3 mm; petals rhombic-spatulate, entire or shallowly bifid at apex; disk urceolate to lacerate when ovary expands, ca. 1.5 mm, hairy inside; ovary ovoid, 2-3 mm; styles 2, apex bifid, lobes linear. Drupes ovoid, 0.7-1.3 × 0.6-1.1 cm, bilocular. Seeds semiovoid, 6-8 × 3-6 mm, yellow to brown, smooth, adaxial surface flattened or slightly concave, abaxial surface slightly convex. Fl. and fr. almost throughout year.
Primary or secondary forests or riverside scrub; 100-1500 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor, Vietnam].
The roots are used as medicine for reducing inflammation and as an astringent antidiarrheal; the fruits are used to induce vomiting and as an antitoxic.