1. Tinospora sinensis (Loureiro) Merrill, Sunyatsenia. 1: 193. 1934.
中华青牛胆 zhong hua qing niu dan
Campylus sinensis Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 1: 113. 1790; Cocculus tomentosus Colebrooke; Menispermum malabaricum Lamarck; M. tomentosum (Colebrooke) Roxburgh; Tinospora malabarica (Lamarck) J. D. Hooker & Thomson; T. tomentosa (Colebrooke) J. D. Hooker & Thomson.
Deciduous vines, to 20 m or longer, puberulent when young, often producing very long aerial roots. Old branches fat and thick, bark brownish, membranous, and often glabrous. Stems slightly fleshy, green when young, striate, pubescent; lenticels raised, (2-)4(-6)-dehiscent. Petiole (4-)6-13 cm, puberulent; leaf blade broadly ovate to subrotund, rarely broadly ovate, 7-14 × 5-13 cm, papery, abaxially tomentulose or slightly tomentulose, adaxially puberulent, base deeply to slightly cordate, margin entire, apex acutely acuminate, palmately 5(-7)-veined at base. Inflorescences appearing when plant is leafless. Male inflorescences solitary or few fascicled, 1-4 cm or longer. Male flowers: sepals 6 in 2 whorls, outer 3 oblong or subelliptic, 1-1.5 mm, inner 3 broadly ovate, to 5 mm, ca. 3 mm wide; petals 6, rhomboidal, with claw ca. 1 mm, lobes ca. 2 mm; stamens 6, filaments ca. 4 mm. Female inflorescences solitary. Female flowers: sepals and petals as in male; staminodes 6, to 1 mm; carpels 3. Fruiting peduncle 8-11(-15) mm; carpophores 2-3 mm. Drupes red, subglobose; endocarp semiovoid to hemispherical, 7-9 × ca. 6 mm, broadly keeled at apex with low median ridge abaxially, surface with irregular low tubercles or longitudinal ridges, adaxial aperture elliptic, ca. 1 mm. Fl. Apr, fr. May-Jun.
Forests, cultivation. S Guangdong, S Guangxi, S Yunnan [Cambodia, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
Preparations of stems and leaves are used for the treatment of rheumatism and other ailments.