All Floras      Advanced Search
FOC Vol. 7 Page 2, 3, 7 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 7 | Menispermaceae

8. Tinospora Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2. 7: 35, 38. 1851.

青牛胆属 qing niu dan shu

Campylus Loureiro.

Vines, often with conspicuous aerial roots. Leaf blade not peltate, base cordate, sometimes sagittate or hastate, palmately veined. Inflorescences axillary or on old leafless stems, solitary or fascicled, racemose, cymose, or paniculate. Male flowers: sepals usually 6 in 2 whorls, free, imbricate, outer 3 usually conspicuously smaller, membranous; petals (3 or)6, base clawed, often with lateral edges involute; stamens 6, filaments free [or connate], anthers subextrorse, dehiscing longitudinally and obliquely. Female flowers: sepals and petals as in male except petals often smaller; staminodes 6; carpels 3, curved-ellipsoidal, style short, fat and thick, stigma reflexed with short, pointed lobes. Drupes 1-3 borne on a short or columnar carpophore, style scar subterminal; endocarp bony, horseshoe-shaped, abaxially convex and sometimes verrucose or tuberculate, adaxially ± flat; condyle broad, with central aperture leading to a globose cavity. Seed half-moon-shaped; endosperm ruminate; cotyledons foliaceous, ovate, extremely thin, much longer than radicle.

More than 30 species: widely distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia to Australia and the Pacific islands (24 species), Africa (seven species), and Madagascar (two species); six species (three endemic) in China.

Several species are used medicinally for a wide variety of problems. The ability of the deciduous species to grow from detached stems means that they often benefit from forest clearance. These species are the larval hosts of fruit-piercing noctuid moths that cause significant damage to crops of Citrus (particularly Mandarins) and Dimocarpus longan (Longan) in Thailand.

1 Vines deciduous, often with long pendulous aerial roots; branchlets fleshy with membranous epidermis and raised lenticels; lenticels eventually cross-shaped   (2)
+ Vines evergreen, without aerial roots; stems and branches not fleshy; lenticels small, lens-shaped, longitudinally 2-dehiscent   (4)
2 (1) Branches and leaves densely puberulent.   1 T. sinensis
+ Branches and leaves glabrous   (3)
3 (2) Older stems with very prominent blunt tubercles; inflorescences appearing before new leaves; leaf blade with flat glabrous pockets in abaxial axils of basal veins.   2 T. crispa
+ Older stems terete; inflorescences appearing with new leaves; leaf blade with dense tufts of brownish glandular hairs in abaxial axils of basal veins.   3 T. hainanensis
4 (1) Leaf blade orbicular-cordate, 6.5-11 cm wide, ca. as long as wide or only slightly longer, with rounded basal lobes, basal sinus very narrow.   4 T. guangxiensis
+ Leaf blade lanceolate-sagittate to hastate, 2-7.5 cm wide, clearly longer than wide, often with angular basal lobes, basal sinus broad   (5)
5 (4) Leaf blade margin not toothed (mainland).   5 T. sagittata
+ Leaf blade margin irregularly toothed (Taiwan).   6 T. dentata

Lower Taxa


Related Objects  
  • Tinospora (PDF)
  • PDF

    Flora of China @
    Browse by
    Advanced Search

    Flora of China Home




     |  eFlora Home |  People Search  |  Help  |  ActKey  |  Hu Cards  |  Glossary  |