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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 25 | Orchidaceae | Calanthe

21. Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 250. 1833.

长距虾脊兰 chang ju xia ji lan

Centrosis sylvatica Thouars, Hist. Orchid. ad t. 35, 36. 1822; Alismorkis masuca (D. Don) Kuntze; A. textorii (Miquel) Kuntze; Bletia masuca D. Don; B. sylvatica (Thouars) Bojer; Calanthe furcata Bateman ex Lindley f. masuca (D. Don) M. Hiroe; C. furcata f. textorii (Miquel) M. Hiroe; C. kintaroi Yamamoto; C. longicalcarata Hayata ex Yamamoto; C. masuca (D. Don) Lindley; C. masuca var. sinensis Rendle; C. seikooensis Yamamoto; C. textorii Miquel; C. textorii var. longicalcarata (Hayata ex Yamamoto) Garay & H. R. Sweet; Zoduba masuca (D. Don) Buchanan-Hamilton.

Plants to 80 cm tall, without distinct rhizome. Pseudobulbs conic, 1-2 × ca. 1 cm. Leaves 3-6, well developed and spreading at anthesis, not deciduous; blade elliptic to obovate, 20-40 × ca. 10.5 cm, abaxially sparsely pubescent, apex acute or acuminate; petiole-like base 11-23 cm. Scape arising from leaf axil, erect, 45-75 cm, stout, with 2 tubular sheaths below middle; rachis laxly to subdensely many flowered; floral bracts persistent, lanceolate, 10-18 mm, densely puberulent. Flowers pale pinkish purple with purple lip sometimes flushed orange; pedicel and ovary ca. 35 mm, densely puberulent. Dorsal sepal elliptic, 18-23 × 6-10 mm, abaxially sparsely puberulent, 5-7-veined, apex acute; lateral sepals oblong, 20-28 × 6-9 mm, abaxially sparsely puberulent, 5-7-veined, apex acute and shortly caudate. Petals obovate or broadly oblong, 15-20 × 9-12 mm, 5-veined, apex obtuse or subacute; lip adnate to entire length of column wings, 11-17 × 6-14 mm, 3-lobed; lateral lobes falcate-lanceolate, ca. 5 × 1.5-2 mm, attenuate toward apex; mid-lobe flabellate or reniform, 10-14 mm wide, base shortly clawed, apex emarginate or shallowly 2-lobed; disk with 3 rows of small, yellow, crested warts at base; spur cylindric, 25-50 mm, outside sparsely puberulent, apex obtuse. Column ca. 5 mm, dilated at apex, nearly glabrous; rostellum 2-lobed; lobes ca. 0.7 mm; pollinia narrowly obovoid, equal in size, ca. 2 mm; viscidium suboblong, small. Fl. Apr-Sep. 2n = 20, 40, 42, 52.

Forests, damp places on riversides, along valleys; 800-2000 m. Guangdong, N and SE Guangxi, Hunan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, S and SE Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, Madagascar].


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