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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 16 | Gentianaceae

11. Gentiana Sect. Chondrophyllae Bunge, Nouv. Mém. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou. 1(7): 207. 1829.

小龙胆组 xiao long dan zu

Annuals, rarely perennials. Flowers terminal, solitary, small. Plicae usually symmetrical. Capsules narrowly obovoid to obovoid, conspicuously winged; wing strong and broad at apex but gradually narrowed toward base. Seed coat minutely reticulate.

Some 156 species: N Africa (Morocco), America, Asia, Australia, Europe; 117 species in China.

1 Capsule narrowly ellipsoid to narrowly obovoid, apex long attenuate; corolla salverform.   (2)
+ Capsule narrowly obovoid, ellipsoid, or ovoid, apex rounded to truncate or rarely acute; corolla tubular, obconic, campanulate, or funnelform (salverform in G. qiujiangensis and occasionally in G. curviphylla).   (4)
2 (1) Corolla 1.7-2.2 cm, lobes 4-5 mm, throat with short dark lines   245 Gentiana piasezkii
+ Corolla 2.5-3.5 cm, lobes 6-8 mm, throat without lines.   (3)
3 (2) Calyx 1.3-1.7 cm, lobes 1.5-2 mm; corolla throat with yellow and blackish spots   244 Gentiana winchuanensis
+ Calyx 2-2.7 cm, lobes 6-8 mm; corolla throat unmarked   246 Gentiana shaanxiensis
4 (1) Plicae margin laciniate or fringed (deeply few dentate in G. epichysantha).   (5)
+ Plicae margin entire, crenulate, 2cleft, dentate, or erose (irregularly laciniate in G. aristata and G. leucomelaena, few laciniate in G. stellulata).   (19)
5 (4) Plicae margin fringes with expanded tips.   (6)
+ Plicae margin filiform-fringed or laciniate with acuminate tips or deeply few dentate.   (9)
6 (5) Stem leaf petioles 4-7 mm; stem branches divaricate   134 Gentiana divaricata
+ Stem leaf petioles 0.5-1.5 mm; stem branches narrowly divergent.   (7)
7 (6) Corolla outside bluish gray, inside white   135 Gentiana oligophylla
+ Corolla blue or blue-purple.   (8)
8 (7) Leaf blade margin distinctly densely papillate-ciliolate; corolla lobes erose-undulate; filaments inserted near base of corolla tube   136 Gentiana deltoidea
+ Leaf blade margin smooth or minutely papillate; corolla lobes entire; filaments inserted near middle of corolla tube   137 Gentiana recurvata
9 (5) Calyx lobes ovate, spreading to recurved; corolla 2.3-3 cm   222 Gentiana jamesii
+ Calyx lobes filiform to narrowly triangular, erect; corolla 0.8-1.5 cm (2.2-2.6 cm in G. qiujiangensis).   (10)
10 (9) Plicae margin deeply few dentate, not truly fringed; corolla white to yellowish green, outside with blue-gray stripes   133 Gentiana epichysantha
+ Plicae margin truly fringed; corolla pale to dark blue, violet, or purple (sometimes pale yellow or white in G. mairei and G. formosa).   (11)
11 (10) Stems at least 2 × dichotomously branched at various levels (occasionally simple in G. exquisita).   (12)
+ Stems generally simple or branched only near base (occasionally few branched in G. formosa and G. burmensis).   (15)
12 (11) Annuals with at least remains of basal leaves; calyx ca. 1/2 as long as corolla; plicae shorter than corolla lobes.   (13)
+ Perennials with stolons but lacking distinctive basal leaves at anthesis; calyx 1/4-1/3 as long as corolla; plicae slightly shorter to as long as corolla lobes.   (14)
13 (12) Corolla inside with short blackish lines in throat; plicae margin usually with 8-10 fringes; filaments inserted near base of corolla tube   138 Gentiana mairei
+ Corolla inside without short blackish lines in throat; plicae margin usually with 15-20 fringes; filaments inserted near middle of corolla tube   139 Gentiana panthaica
14 (12) Corolla with dark blue spots; plicae 3-4 × as wide as linear lobes   143 Gentiana exquisita
+ Corolla without spots; plicae not wider than ovate-elliptic to ovate lobes   145 Gentiana grata
15 (11) Corolla salverform, 2.2-2.6 cm   140 Gentiana qiujiangensis
+ Corolla tubular-campanulate, obconic, or funnelform, 0.8-1.5 cm.   (16)
16 (15) Plicae less than 1/2 as long as corolla lobes, margin laciniate; stamens inserted at apical part of corolla tube.   (17)
+ Plicae as long as or slightly shorter than corolla lobes, margin filiform-fringed; stamens inserted at middle or basal part of corolla tube.   (18)
17 (16) Corolla lobes suborbicular, base distinctly contracted, apex rounded, plicae broadly oblong; style 1.5-2 mm   141 Gentiana lacinulata
+ Corolla lobes ovate-triangular to ovate-lanceolate, base not contracted, apex obtuse; plicae ovate; style 3-4 mm   142 Gentiana muscicola
18 (16) Flowers nodding on pedicel bent near apex; calyx lobes filiform to subulate; corolla white to pale blue   144 Gentiana formosa
+ Flowers ± erect; calyx lobes narrowly triangular; corolla purple   146 Gentiana burmensis
19 (4) Plants perennial with stolons and/or fleshy roots.   (20)
+ Plants annual or biennial with fibrous roots.   (24)
20 (19) Leaves congested, recurved and ± folded, leathery, margin thickened cartilaginous; basal leaves scarcely or not at all larger than stem leaves.   (21)
+ Leaves not congested, neither recurved nor folded, rarely upper leaves occasionally ± recurved, herbaceous, margin membranous or indistinctly cartilaginous; basal leaves distinctly larger than stem leaves.   (22)
21 (20) Leaf blade leathery but scarcely rigid, narrowly linear-elliptic, 1-2 mm wide; calyx lobes subulate, (3-)5-6 mm   156 Gentiana kwangsiensis
+ Leaf blade rigid, lanceolate, ovate-elliptic, or ovate, 2-3.5 mm wide; calyx lobes ovate-lanceolate to triangular, 2-3 mm   243 Gentiana arisanensis
22 (20) Roots stout, fusiform; stems as long as or slightly longer than basal leaves; basal leaves linear to linear-lanceolate   240 Gentiana napulifera
+ Roots slender, cylindric; stems apparently longer than basal leaves; basal leaves elliptic to ovate-lanceolate.   (23)
23 (22) Flowers clustered in ± involucrate heads, subsessile; anthers 1-1.5 mm   241 Gentiana praticola
+ Flowers solitary on short to long branches, subsessile to pedicellate; anthers 1.8-2.5 mm   242 Gentiana loureiroi
24 (19) Calyx lobes spreading, recurved, or reflexed (rarely erect in G. bryoides. G. crassuloides, and G. pedicellata).   (25)
+ Calyx lobes erect and ± appressed to corolla (rarely slightly spreading in G. simulatrix).   (45)
25 (24) Calyx lobes needlelike, straight spreading, rigid   157 Gentiana asterocalyx
+ Calyx lobes not needlelike, recurved, not rigid.   (26)
26 (25) Corolla 4-5 mm   186 subsp. subtilis
+ Corolla 5.5-23 mm.   (27)
27 (26) Leaf blade pubescent to hirsute.   (28)
+ Leaf blade glabrous or merely papillate, not pubescent (margin sometimes ciliolate).   (29)
28 (27) Stem leaf blades deltate-spatulate, 3-4.5 mm; corolla 5.5-6 mm   175 Gentiana nyingchiensis
+ Stem leaf blades ovate to ovate-triangular, 2.5-3 mm; corolla 8-10 mm   185 Gentiana hirsuta
29 (27) Stem leaf blades lanceolate, narrowly elliptic, ovate, ovate-triangular, or cordate (occasionally oblanceolate in G. pedicellata).   (30)
+ Stem leaf blades oblong, spatulate, obovate, spatulate-orbicular, or (at least upper leaves) reniform.   (36)
30 (29) Leaves and calyx lobes without a distinctly thickened margin.   (31)
+ Leaves and calyx lobes with a distinctly thickened cartilaginous margin (calyx lobes margin membranous in G. scabrifilamenta).   (33)
31 (30) Corolla yellow or pale yellow, with dark spots in throat   167 Gentiana scabrida
+ Corolla outside pale yellow-green, inside pale blue, blue, or blue-purple, without spots in throat.   (32)
32 (31) Corolla twice as long as calyx, inside blue to blue-purple with yellow to orange throat   168 Gentiana pedicellata
+ Corolla scarcely exceeding calyx, inside pale blue   169 Gentiana moniliformis
33 (30) Leaves and calyx lobes with a somewhat fleshy to subcoriaceous aristate tip to 0.7 mm; flowering branches usually short, erect, crowded.   (34)
+ Leaves and calyx lobes with an herbaceous apiculate or cuspidate tip; flowering branches long, spreading, lax.   (35)
34 (33) All stem leaf blades ovate or cordate; anthers 0.5-0.8 mm   170 Gentiana yokusai
+ Upper stem leaf blades narrowly elliptic; anthers 0.8-1 mm   171 Gentiana sutchuenensis
35 (33) Corolla 12-14 mm; calyx lobes narrowly triangular; stamens inserted at middle of corolla tube; filaments 1-1.2 mm, scabrous or papillate   172 Gentiana scabrifilamenta
+ Corolla 7-8 mm; calyx lobes ovate; stamens inserted at basal part of corolla tube; filaments 2-2.5 mm, glabrous   174 Gentiana alsinoides
36 (29) Calyx lobes inside papillate, margin not distinctly thickened   176 Gentiana mailingensis
+ Calyx lobes inside not papillate, margin distinctly cartilaginously thickened.   (37)
37 (36) Upper stem leaf blades wider than long, reniform   177 Gentiana crassuloides
+ All stem leaf blades longer than wide, spatulate or obovate.   (38)
38 (37) Stems often solitary (occasionally to 10), simple toward base, fastigiately short branched toward apex; flowers in a ± capitate or corymbose inflorescence.   (39)
+ Stems 2 to several, simple or branched only near base, if branched higher then ultimate branches distinctly longer than flowers, not fastigiate; flowers not in heads or dense corymbs.   (40)
39 (38) Flowering branches ± crowded into a head; corolla 6-7 mm, pale blue   223 Gentiana intricata
+ Flowering branches corymbose; corolla 11-14 mm, purplish   224 Gentiana subintricata
40 (38) Basal leaves poorly developed, 4-7 mm.   (41)
+ Basal leaves well developed, (5-)6-30 mm.   (42)
41 (40) Calyx tube uniformly herbaceous; stem leaf blades and calyx lobes rounded at apex   178 Gentiana crassula
+ Calyx tube membranous; stem leaf blades and calyx lobes deltate-acute at apex   179 Gentiana curviphylla
42 (40) Corolla pale blue, throat with short dark blue lines, lobes mucronate.   (43)
+ Corolla blue to dark blue, throat unmarked, lobes obtuse.   (44)
43 (42) Stems branched only at base; stem leaf blades obovate   180 Gentiana bryoides
+ Stems branched throughout; stem leaf blades spatulate to oblanceolate   181 Gentiana ludingensis
44 (42) Corolla scarcely exceeding calyx; seeds dark brown   182 Gentiana squarrosa
+ Corolla twice as long as calyx; seeds pale brown   183 Gentiana pseudosquarrosa
45 (24) Plants with 1 or occasionally few conspicuous main stems, branched above middle or fastigiately throughout, rarely simple.   (46)
+ Plants with stems usually branched only near base, without a distinct main stem, rarely simple in depauperate specimens.   (73)
46 (45) Stem solitary, lower part simple and leafless, upper part much branched with internodes very short and leaves plus flowering branches congested into a dense head.   (47)
+ Stems solitary or several from base, leafy throughout or most of their length, usually ± fastigiately branched near or above middle, branches forming dense or ± corymbose inflorescences (occasionally unbranched in small plants).   (54)
47 (46) Margin of all stem leaf blades cartilaginous.   (48)
+ Margin of upper stem leaf blades membranous.   (49)
48 (47) Calyx lobes subulate, apex acuminate and awned; stamens inserted near base of corolla tube; stigma lobes narrowly oblong   216 Gentiana xingrenensis
+ Calyx lobes suborbicular, apex rounded and cuspidate; stamens inserted at or about middle of corolla tube; stigma lobes semiorbicular   221 Gentiana globosa
49 (47) Margin of lower stem leaf blades conspicuously membranous.   (50)
+ Margin of lower stem leaf blades not membranous but usually cartilaginous.   (51)
50 (49) Calyx campanulate, 7-8.5 mm, lobes ovate-elliptic; corolla 8-9 mm   217 Gentiana albomarginata
+ Calyx obconic, 4-4.5 mm, lobes oblong to suborbicular; corolla 7-8 mm   220 Gentiana albicalyx
51 (49) Leaves and calyx pubescent; corolla 1.2-1.4 cm; stamens unequal   214 Gentiana pedata
+ Leaves and calyx glabrous; corolla 0.7-1.1 cm; stamens equal.   (52)
52 (51) Calyx campanulate, 8-9 mm; corolla lobes 2-3 mm   219 Gentiana huxleyi
+ Calyx tubular, 4.5-7 mm; corolla lobes 1-1.5 mm.   (53)
53 (52) Calyx lobes ovate to triangular, 2.5-3.5 mm; plicae ovate; stamens inserted at or about middle of corolla tube, filaments 1.5-2 mm   215 Gentiana scytophylla
+ Calyx lobes broadly oblong, 1.5-2 mm; plicae semi-orbicular; stamens inserted near base of corolla tube, filaments 3-3.5 mm   218 Gentiana capitata
54 (46) Calyx lobes filiform to filiform-subulate.   (55)
+ Calyx lobes lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate, ovate, or triangular.   (57)
55 (54) Corolla 1-1.8 cm, outside yellowish green, inside pale blue   147 Gentiana delicata
+ Corolla (1.5-)1.8-6 cm, purple or blue.   (56)
56 (55) Calyx lobes shorter than tube; corolla purple; style 1.5-2.5 mm   148 Gentiana rubicunda
+ Calyx lobes twice as long as tube; corolla blue; style 3-4.5 mm   149 Gentiana itzershanensis
57 (54) Stem leaf blades spatulate or obovate.   (58)
+ Stem leaf blades oblong, lanceolate, narrowly elliptic, elliptic-ovate, ovate, ovate-orbicular, or orbicular.   (64)
58 (57) Calyx lobes about as long as or longer than tube.   (59)
+ Calyx lobes shorter than tube.   (61)
59 (58) Leaves densely pubescent on both surfaces and calyx pubescent outside; corolla pale yellow, scarcely exceeding calyx   233 Gentiana kunmingensis
+ Leaves and calyx lobes glabrous or merely papillate on adaxial surface or midvein, sometimes ciliolate on margin; corolla pale blue or blue, distinctly longer than calyx.   (60)
60 (59) Midrib of leaves and calyx lobes densely papillate; stamens equal; lateral branches well developed   234 Gentiana papillosa
+ Midrib of leaves and calyx lobes glabrous; stamens unequal; lateral branches short and weak   232 Gentiana maeulchanensis
61 (58) Upper stem leaf blades linear to narrowly elliptic; corolla throat with short blackish lines   236 Gentiana bomiensis
+ Upper stem leaf blades spatulate; corolla throat without lines or spots.   (62)
62 (61) Whole plant blackish purple; petiole of stem leaves longer than blade; flowering branches lax   237 Gentiana daochengensis
+ Whole plant green except sometimes for purple stems; petiole of stem leaves shorter than blade; flowering branches crowded at apex of stem.   (63)
63 (62) Corolla blue, funnelform   238 Gentiana riparia
+ Corolla outside yellow-green and inside pale blue, tubular   239 Gentiana densiflora
64 (57) Corolla 0.6-1 cm.   (65)
+ Corolla 1-2.5 cm.   (67)
65 (64) Stamens unequal; stem leaf blades lanceolate   228 Gentiana exigua
+ Stamens equal; stem leaf blades elliptic, ovate-lanceolate, ovate-elliptic, or ovate.   (66)
66 (65) Calyx lobes ovate; corolla lobes 1.5-2 mm; stamens inserted at basal part of corolla tube   173 Gentiana simulatrix
+ Calyx lobes linear-lanceolate; corolla lobes 1-1.2 mm; stamens inserted near middle of corolla tube   227 Gentiana franchetiana
67 (64) Stems consistently simple, 1flowered; leaf blade margin thickened   235 Gentiana tentyoensis
+ Stems at least of larger plants generally branched, 2- to several flowered (rarely 1flowered in G. zollingeri); leaf blade margin not thickened.   (68)
68 (67) Corolla 2-2.5 cm; seeds winged; margin of leaf blade and calyx lobes not distinctly cartilaginous or membranous   225 Gentiana taiwanica
+ Corolla 1-2 cm; seeds wingless; margin of leaf blade and calyx lobes distinctly cartilaginous or membranous.   (69)
69 (68) Flowering branches not crowded together; stamens equal   226 Gentiana zollingeri
+ Flowering branches crowded together; stamens unequal.   (70)
70 (69) Leaf blade and calyx lobe margins irregularly long ciliate, midribs produced into a prominent ciliate wing or crest; stem leaf blades ovate-orbicular   229 Gentiana cristata
+ Leaf blade and calyx lobe margins not long ciliate, midribs prominent but not winged; stem leaf blades oblong to lanceolate.   (71)
71 (70) Middle to upper stem leaves incurved; basal leaf blades scarcely larger than stem leaves; calyx 1-1.2 mm   159 Gentiana linoides
+ Middle to upper stem leaves arcuately spreading; basal leaf blades conspicuously larger than stem leaves; calyx 6-10 mm.   (72)
72 (71) Stem leaf blades lanceolate, apex aristate; corolla 1-1.3 cm; plicae margin entire or emarginate   230 Gentiana taliensis
+ Stem leaf blades oblong to oblong-lanceolate, apex mucronate; corolla 1.3-2 cm; plicae margin denticulate   231 Gentiana anisostemon
73 (45) Stem leaf blades linear, lanceolate, or spatulate.   (74)
+ Stem leaf blades broader than linear, lanceolate, or spatulate.   (82)
74 (73) Anthers straight.   (75)
+ Anthers curved.   (77)
75 (74) Calyx lobes as long as or longer than tube; anthers subglobose   158 Gentiana asparagoides
+ Calyx lobes shorter than tube (as long as tube in G. linoides); anthers linear to oblong.   (76)
76 (75) Margin of leaf blade and calyx lobes broadly membranous; corolla blue-purple with yellow-green base, lobe margin entire; stamens unequal; stem leaves incurved and folded   159 Gentiana linoides
+ Margin of leaf blade and calyx lobes narrowly membranous; corolla outside blue-gray and inside white to bluish gray, lobe margin serrate to erose; stamens often equal; stem leaves straight but apex sometimes recurved   162 Gentiana heleonastes
77 (74) Corolla throat with dark spots and stripes.   (78)
+ Corolla throat without dark spots or stripes.   (79)
78 (77) Margin of lower stem leaves cartilaginous and of upper leaves membranous; corolla purple; stamens inserted at basal part of corolla tube   160 Gentiana syringea
+ Margin of all stem leaves membranous; corolla blue with yellow-green base; stamens inserted at middle of corolla tube   161 Gentiana grumii
79 (77) Stems papillate toward apex, pedicel papillate; corolla tubular   164 Gentiana tricolor
+ Stems and pedicels not papillate; corolla obconic.   (80)
80 (79) Lower stem leaf blades ovate to ovate-orbicular; corolla lobes ovate-orbicular   165 Gentiana choanantha
+ Lower stem leaf blades linear to linear-lanceolate; corolla lobes ovate-elliptic to ovate.   (81)
81 (80) Pedicel 5-20 mm; corolla lobes 3-4 mm; plicae oblong, 1.5-2 mm, margin irregularly laciniate   163 Gentiana aristata
+ Pedicel 3-4 mm; corolla lobes 2-2.5 mm; plicae ovate-elliptic, 1-1.2 mm, margin denticulate   166 Gentiana curvianthera
82 (73) Calyx lobes usually filiform or filiform subulate.   (83)
+ Calyx lobes lanceolate or triangular.   (92)
83 (82) Calyx 2-4 mm; corolla 4-7 mm.   (84)
+ Calyx (4-)4.5-9 mm; corolla 8-20 mm.   (86)
84 (83) Stem leaves recurved; calyx 3.5-4 mm; corolla blue; plicae obliquely truncate, margin irregularly crenulate   130 Gentiana myrioclada
+ Stem leaves spreading; calyx 2-3.5 mm; corolla white or blue-gray; plicae symmetrical, margin entire, 2cleft, or few laciniate.   (85)
85 (84) Stem leaf blades ovate; corolla 4-6 mm, tube longer than lobes; plicae margin entire; calyx 2-3 mm   131 Gentiana microphyta
+ Stem leaf blades elliptic-lanceolate to sometimes ovate-lanceolate; corolla 6-7 mm, tube shorter than lobes; plicae margin 2cleft to few laciniate; calyx 3-3.5 mm   132 Gentiana stellulata
86 (83) Corolla purple, throat with many short dark lines.   (87)
+ Corolla white to pale yellow or pale blue to pale purple, throat unmarked or with yellow spots.   (88)
87 (86) Leaf blade margin hirsute; corolla 0.9-1 cm; calyx coarsely papillate   150 Gentiana baoxingensis
+ Leaf blade margin almost smooth; corolla 1.7-2 cm; calyx not papillate   151 Gentiana filisepala
88 (86) Corolla with yellow spots in throat; plicae almost as long as lobes   152 Gentiana flavomaculata
+ Corolla without spots in throat; plicae shorter than lobes.   (89)
89 (88) Leaf blade adaxially densely papillate; corolla white, yellowish white, or yellowish green, blue on outside only; plicae margin deeply few dentate   133 Gentiana epichysantha
+ Leaf blade adaxially glabrous; corolla pale blue at least in throat; plicae margin entire or 2cleft.   (90)
90 (89) Leaf blade broadly ovate or cordate, base rounded and contracted into a slender petiole; stem branches divaricate   153 Gentiana vandellioides
+ Leaf blade lanceolate, narrowly elliptic, or ovate, base attenuate or obtuse, subsessile; stem branches narrowly divergent.   (91)
91 (90) Stems purple, densely papillate; basal leaf blades linear-elliptic, 13-17 × 2-3.5 mm; corolla pale purple   154 Gentiana tatakensis
+ Stems green, not papillate; basal and stem leaf blades lanceolate, 6-11 × 1-2.5 mm; corolla yellowish white, throat pale blue   155 Gentiana yiliangensis
92 (82) Plicae very small, auriculate, attached to right side of corolla lobe   184 Gentiana prainii
+ Plicae large, oblong, ovate, or triangular, borne between corolla lobes.   (93)
93 (92) Calyx lobes and/or corolla lobes caudate.   (94)
+ Neither calyx lobes nor corolla lobes caudate.   (102)
94 (93) Leaves and calyx lobes glabrous except for minute marginal cilia; leaf blade margin on at least uppermost stem broadly membranous (not or scarcely so in G. ninglangensis var. glabrescens).   (95)
+ Leaves and usually also calyx papillate or puberulent to hirsute at least on midribs; leaf blade margin not membranous (sometimes narrowly cartilaginous).   (96)
95 (95) Leaf blade margin not membranous; corolla 1.4-1.6 cm   (95)
+ Leaf blade margin broadly membranous; corolla 1.7-2.2 cm   211 Gentiana chungtienensis
96 (94) Leaves and calyx hirsute.   (97)
+ Leaves and calyx papillate or puberulent.   (99)
97 (96) All stem leaf blades ovate to ovate-orbicular   189 Gentiana pubiflora
+ At least lower stem leaf blades obovate or spatulate.   (98)
98 (97) All stem leaf blades obovate or spatulate   190 Gentiana pubigera
+ Lower stem leaf blades obovate or spatulate, middle to upper elliptic to linear-lanceolate   191 Gentiana ninglangensis
99 (96) Corolla lobes caudate with tips 1-1.5 mm; stem leaf blade margins narrowly cartilaginous.   (100)
+ Corolla lobes obtuse to acute, sometimes mucronate but not caudate; stem leaf blade margins broadly membranous.   (101)
100 (99) Stem leaf blades spatulate to obovate; corolla 0.8-1 cm; stamens equal; stems much branched   187 Gentiana xanthonannos
101 (99) All stem leaf blades ovate or basally sometimes obovate; calyx 6-8 mm   212 Gentiana subuniflora
+ Stem leaf blades lanceolate; calyx 13-15 mm   213 Gentiana radiata
102 (93) Stamens unequal.   (103)
+ Stamens equal.   (107)
103 (102) Corolla throat with blackish stripes and spots.   (104)
+ Corolla throat without stripes or spots.   (105)
104 (103) All stem leaf blades spatulate to obovate; stems usually branched only at base; corolla (1.3-)1.4-2 cm   195 Gentiana bella
+ Upper stem leaf blades linear to elliptic; stems 2 or 3-branched; corolla 1-1.5 cm   196 Gentiana forrestii
105 (103) Stem leaf blade margins cartilaginous; corolla outside yellowish green   197 Gentiana complexa
+ Stem leaf blade margins indistinctly membranous; corolla outside blue or purple.   (106)
106 (105) Whole plant subglabrous; corolla 1.2-1.6 cm, clear pale blue   198 Gentiana flexicaulis
+ Stems densely papillate and margins of leaves and calyx lobes ciliolate; corolla 0.7-1 cm, purple   199 Gentiana inconspicua
107 (102) Basal leaves well developed, involucriform.   (108)
+ Basal leaves poorly developed, not involucriform.   (110)
108 (107) Lower stem leaf blades spatulate, upper elliptic; calyx lobes 1.2-1.5 mm; plicae triangular, apex 2cleft   192 Gentiana licentii
+ Stem leaf blades oblong or lanceolate; calyx lobes 2.5-3 mm; plicae oblong or ovate, apex obtuse or rounded.   (109)
109 (108) Stems much branched; corolla tubular; calyx lobes broadly triangular; plicae ovate, apex obtuse   193 Gentiana macrauchena
+ Stems few branched; corolla funnelform; calyx lobes narrowly triangular; plicae broadly oblong, apex rounded   194 Gentiana thunbergii
110 (107) Stem leaf blades spatulate or obovate, widest above middle.   (111)
+ Stem leaf blades oblong, lanceolate, elliptic, or ovate, widest below middle or with parallel sides.   (114)
111 (110) Stem leaf blade apices triangular acute, cartilaginous margin indistinct; corolla purple.   (112)
+ Stem leaf blade apices rounded, cartilaginous margin distinct; corolla blue.   (113)
112 (111) Leaves and calyx glabrous   200 Gentiana spathulifolia
+ Leaves and calyx densely pubescent   201 Gentiana abaensis
113 (111) Calyx ± 1/2 as long as corolla, obconic, tube without longitudinal white stripes   202 Gentiana pseudoaquatica
+ Calyx slightly shorter than corolla, tubular, tube with 5 longitudinal white stripes   203 Gentiana burkillii
114 (110) Margins of at least upper leaves and calyx lobes broadly membranous.   (115)
+ Margins of leaves and calyx lobes cartilaginous or narrowly membranous.   (116)
115 (114) Corolla throat with short dark blue lines; stem leaf blades linear, linear-lanceolate, oblong, or ovate, all with membranous margins; calyx outside and leaves not papillate   209 Gentiana micantiformis
+ Corolla throat with dark blotches or unmarked; stem leaf blades ovate, navicular, or spatulate, lower with cartilaginous margins, upper with membranous margins; calyx outside and leaves abaxially papillate   210 Gentiana tatsienensis
116 (114) Corolla campanulate, with spots in throat.   (117)
+ Corolla tubular, without spots in throat.   (118)
117 (116) Corolla with yellow-green spots; plicae deeply 2cleft   204 Gentiana aperta
+ Corolla with dark blue spots; plicae irregularly laciniate   205 Gentiana leucomelaena
118 (116) Corolla lobes yellowish white; leaves distinctly ciliolate   206 Gentiana prattii
+ Corolla lobes pale blue or blue-purple; leaves not ciliolate.   (119)
119 (118) Flowers subsessile; calyx lobes ovate, base contracted, margin thick cartilaginous; corolla 7-8 mm   173 Gentiana simulatrix
+ Flowers with pedicels 2-4 mm; calyx lobes triangular, base not contracted, margin narrowly membranous; corolla 9-20 mm.   (120)
120 (119) Corolla blue, staying closed, lobe apices obtuse; plicae ovate; stamens inserted at basal part of corolla tube   207 Gentiana aquatica
+ Corolla blue-purple with pale yellow-green base and blackish ring in throat, opening normally, lobe apices acute; plicae oblong; stamens inserted at middle of corolla tube   208 Gentiana conduplicata

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