3. Ficus subgen. Sycomorus (Gasparrini) Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi. 3: 295. 1867.
聚果榕亚属 ju guo rong ya shu
Sycomorus Gasparrini, Richerch. Caprif. 86. 1845.
Large trees, often buttressed, not epiphytic; monoecious or some species dioecious. Creeping stems with adventitious roots. Stipules fully amplexicaul; leaf blade entire, symmetric or asymmetric, margin often toothed; wax glands in axils of main basal veins, often also in other vein axils or on nodes. Figs often cauliflorous on specialized leafless branches, less often just below leaves, interfloral bracts absent, internal bristles often present, carpodermis with stone cells absent or in inner layers only, apical pore often large with many upper bracts visible; peduncle usually with 3 basal bracts in a collar. Perianth lobes joined, denticulate or lacerate. Male flowers: around apical pore, nearly always subtended by 2 bracteoles, ± sessile; stamens (1 or)2, filaments joined at base; anthers mucronate; pistillode usually absent. Female flowers: ovary dark red; stigma simple, truncate. Fruit an achene; smooth, not or only slightly keeled.
About 140 species: from Africa through Asia to Australia; ten species (one endemic) in China.
This subgenus was restricted by Corner to monoecious species and thus to just one species from the Flora area, Ficus racemosa. Berg (Blumea 167–178. 2003) showed that other species, with similar inflorescences, which had been excluded because they are dioecious, resemble F. subgen. Sycomorus s.str. by the male flowers, which are each subtended by a pair of bracteoles. They are also all pollinated by fig wasps belonging to the genus Ceratosolen, and so they have been included within an enlarged F. subgen. Sycomorus.