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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae

1. Saussurea Subg. Eriocoryne (Wallich ex Candolle) J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India. 3: 376. 1881.

雪兔子亚属 xue tu zi ya shu

Aplotaxis sect. Eriocoryne Wallich ex Candolle, Prodr. 6: 541. 1838.

Herbs, perennial or rarely biennial, monocarpic or polycarpic, cauliferous, stemless, or substemless, often densely lanate, rarely glabrous or subglabrous. Stem erect, usually hollow, apex usually club-shaped and inflated. Leaves densely lanate, cottony, sericeous, tomentose, or glabrous, margin entire, denticulate, dentate, pinnately lobed, or pinnately divided. Capitula numerous or rarely solitary, usually aggregated in a densely congested hemispheric synflorescence in center of leaf rosette or terminal on stem, enclosed or subtended by uppermost stem leaves or rarely in an interrupted spiciform or corymbiform synflorescence. Phyllaries without an appendage. Receptacle usually with subulate bristles, sometimes with short papillae, or naked. Corolla usually glabrous, sometimes papillose. Achene smooth or wrinkled, usually glabrous, sometimes papillose, rarely thinly arachnoid or gland-dotted, usually without apical crown (in Saussurea stella with dentate crown). Pappus dirty white, straw-colored, light to dark brown, gray, or blackish, usually in 2 rows; outer bristles usually scabrid or rarely plumose, sometimes lacking.

Thirty-four species: Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia (Siberia), Tajikistan; 30 species (14 endemic) in China.

Saussurea subg. Eriocoryne occurs mainly on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and adjacent areas.

1 Plants stemless or shortly stemmed, monocarpic; caudex simple, bearing a single terminal rosette   (2)
+ Plants usually with a developed stem, monocarpic or polycarpic, if almost stemless then polycarpic with branched caudex bearing several sterile leaf rosettes and flowering shoots   (8)
2 (1) Leaves yellowish green or grayish green, densely sericeous or lanate   (3)
+ Leaves green and often with a red or purplish base or reddish, glabrous or sparsely arachnoid floccose   (5)
3 (2) Leaves spatulate or elliptic, more than 5 mm wide; receptacle without bristles; pappus in 1 row.   11 S. depsangensis
+ Leaves narrowly triangular or linear, usually less than 5 mm wide; receptacle with bristles; pappus in 2 rows   (4)
4 (3) Leaves densely lanate in basal part, glabrous in apical part, apex long acuminate.   9 S. wellbyi
+ Leaves densely sericeous or lanate throughout, apex obtuse.   10 S. aster
5 (2) Capitulum solitary, large, 3-4 cm in diam., in center of leaf rosette.   6 S. grandiceps
+ Capitula numerous, much smaller, in a clustered hemispheric synflorescence   (6)
6 (5) Leaves pinnately lobed to pinnately divided.   5 S. thoroldii
+ Leaves undivided, margin entire or crenulate   (7)
7 (6) Leaves sessile, narrowly triangular to linear, 2.5-20 cm, apex very long acuminate.   7 S. stella
+ Leaves petiolate, elliptic, ovate, or spatulate, 1-2.5 cm, apex obtuse or rounded.   8 S. thomsonii
8 (1) Leaves glabrous or sparsely pilose or tomentose and glabrescent   (9)
+ Leaves densely lanate, villous, sericeous, or tomentose, sometimes adaxially glabrous   (10)
9 (8) Plants 40-90 cm tall, not caespitose; capitula in a ± congested corymbiform synflorescence.   1 S. uliginosa
+ Plants 10-20 cm tall, caespitose; capitula in a densely clustered hemispheric synflorescence.   2 S. fistulosa
10 (8) Annuals or biennials; stem diffusely branched; capitula in a lax corymbiform synflorescence.   4 S. kingii
+ Perennials; stem simple; capitula in a densely congested corymbiform, hemispheric, or spiciform synflorescence or rarely solitary (in S. conaensis and S. tridactyla var. maiduoganla and sometimes in S. paxiana)   (11)
11 (10) Stem 15-35 cm tall, not hidden by leaves or lanate indumentum.   3 S. delavayi
+ Stem usually less than 15 cm tall, if taller then entirely hidden by leaves and lanate indumentum   (12)
12 (11) Synflorescence at anthesis concealed in lanate indumentum; capitula surrounded and much exceeded by densely lanate bracts   (13)
+ Synflorescence at anthesis not concealed in lanate indumentum; capitula exposed on stem apex, not exceeded by densely lanate bracts   (18)
13 (12) Capitulum solitary.   28 S. conaensis
+ Capitula numerous, in a ± aggregated synflorescence   (14)
14 (13) Synflorescence interrupted spiciform; capitula not clustered on stem apex.   25 S. laniceps
+ Synflorescence hemispheric; capitula clustered on stem apex   (15)
15 (14) Capitula loosely clustered on obovoid stem apex.   29 S. topkegolensis
+ Capitula densely aggregated on flat or convex stem apex   (16)
16 (15) Phyllaries in 3-6 rows, unequal in length.   26 S. gossipiphora
+ Phyllaries in 1-4 rows, almost equal in length   (17)
17 (16) Plants monocarpic, not caespitose; caudex simple; leaves with white hairs; phyllaries in 3 or 4 rows.   27 S. nishiokae
+ Plants polycarpic, caespitose; caudex branched; leaves with yellowish golden hairs; phyllaries in 1 row.   30 S. bhutkesh
18 (12) Pappus dull dark brown, mouse-gray, or blackish   (19)
+ Pappus white, dirty white, straw-colored, light brown, or brown   (21)
19 (18) Plants not caespitose; caudex long, creeping, fragile, branched below ground level; leaf blade elliptic to narrowly elliptic, pinnately lobed to pinnately divided, 5-15 mm wide.   16 S. quercifolia
+ Plants usually caespitose; caudex short, branched at ground level; leaf blade obovate, spatulate, or linear-oblong, undivided, 2-8 mm wide   (20)
20 (19) Rosette and lower stem leaves green, glabrescent; petioles green, elongated; leaf margin obtusely sinuate-dentate; outer pappus bristles always reflexed and appressed on achene.   13 S. inversa
+ Rosette and lower stem leaves whitish, densely tomentose; petioles purple, short; leaf margin entire or shallowly crenate; outer pappus bristles usually erect.   14 S. gnaphalodes
21 (18) Plants shortly stemmed, less than 10 cm tall   (22)
+ Plants with a distinct elongate erect flowering stem, usually more than 10 cm tall   (24)
22 (21) Leaf blade very small, less than 1 cm.   15 S. sugongii
+ Leaf blade larger, more than 1 cm   (23)
23 (22) Upper stem leaves elliptic, not reflexed, apex obtuse to rounded.   12 S. glacialis
+ Upper stem leaves linear, reflexed, apex acuminate.   19 S. gyacaensis
24 (21) Rosette and lower stem leaves adaxially densely yellowish or white lanate throughout   (25)
+ Rosette and lower stem leaves adaxially dark green or purplish, arachnoid floccose, tomentose, or glabrescent, sometimes only lanate toward base   (27)
25 (24) Leaf margin apically 3-6-lobed; corolla glabrous.   22 S. tridactyla
+ Leaf margin pinnately lobed or dentate; corolla ± papillose   (26)
26 (25) Lower stem leaves fan-shaped to rhombic, more than 1 cm wide, margin dentate or pinnately lobed; achene glabrous or sparsely papillose on rim.   23 S. medusa
+ Lower stem leaves narrowly spatulate, less than 1 cm wide, margin pinnately lobed; achene densely papillose on rim.   24 S. namikawae
27 (24) All leaves deeply pinnatisect.   20 S. leucoma
+ Leaves denticulate, dentate, or pinnately lobed   (28)
28 (27) Rosette and lower stem leaves abaxially often reddish, glabrous; stem leaves erect or spreading; capitula solitary or 2-5; involucre 1-2 cm in diam.   18 S. paxiana
+ Rosette and lower stem leaves abaxially dark green, arachnoid; stem leaves reflexed; capitula numerous (8-20); involucre. 4-0.9 cm in diam   (29)
29 (28) Plants not caespitose; leaves elliptic, to 3 cm; upper stem leaves arachnoid; achene glabrous.   17 S. georgei
+ Plants usually caespitose; leaves narrowly elliptic to linear, to 6 cm; upper stem leaves densely white lanate; achene sparsely papillose.   21 S. simpsoniana

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