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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae | Taraxacum

10. Taraxacum sect. Qaisera Abedin, Pakistan J. Bot. 39: 1427. 2007.

乌兹别克斯坦蒲公英组 wu zi bie ke si tan pu gong ying zu

Plants medium-sized. Leaves light green to deep green, arachnoid, not thickened; petiole usually purplish or pinkish, usually broadly to narrowly winged but in inner leaves sometimes unwinged; leaf blade usually pinnatisect; lateral lobes usually triangular, subrecurved. Outer phyllaries usually 13-19, ovate, broadly ovate, or sometimes ovate-lanceolate, usually appressed, loosely appressed erect, or ± erect-patent, venation distinct or not clearly visible, border narrow to broad, apex usually flat or sometimes corniculate. Ligules yellow; ligule tube pubescent with straight hairs. Achene grayish straw-colored brown, 3.6-5 × 0.9-1.2 mm; body often with prominent lateral ridges (narrowly winged), densely shortly spinulose above, abruptly to almost gradually narrowing into a conic to subcylindric 0.4-0.8(-1.1) mm cone; beak usually 6-10 mm, thin. Pappus white or yellowish white.

About 35 species: centered in C Asia; 20 species (19 endemic) in China.

The sectional type, Taraxacum qaiseri Abedin from Pakistan, is based on a single, imperfectly prepared and preserved specimen, and it is difficult to interpret the section on this basis. The members of T. sect. Qaisera, as understood here, are superficially similar to those of T. sect. Taraxacum but have outer phyllaries very broad, usually ovate to broadly ovate, appressed to erect-patent, and sometimes even imbricate; petioles usually broadly winged; and ligule tube with straight hairs. Taraxacum sect. Qaisera is comprised of mostly agamospermous hybridogenous species of unknown parentage. We can hypothesize on the basis of morphological similarity that one of the parental taxa may belong to T. sect. Calanthodia.

Taraxacum ecornutum Kovalevskaja (Bot. Mater. Gerb. Inst. Bot. Akad. Nauk Uzbeksk. S.S.R. 17: 14. 1962) was reported to occur in China (FRPS 80(2): 72. 1999). It is a taxon undoubtedly belonging to T. sect. Qaisera, but we failed to find convincing material supporting this record.

Taraxacum pseudoalpinum Schischkin (Fl. Kazakhst. 9: 437, 571. 1966) and T. pseudoroseum Schischkin (Fl. URSS 29: 528, 744. 1964), described from C Tian Shan, belong to T. sect. Qaisera. They were reported as members of the Chinese flora (FRPS 80(2): 71-72. 1999), but we failed to find any specimens of these two taxa from China.


1 Pollen absent   (2)
+ Pollen present   (3)
       
2 (1) Stigmas yellow.   75 T. florum
+ Stigmas discolored.   83 T. aeneum
       
3 (1) Pollen grains regular in size.   86 T. xinyuanicum
+ Pollen grains irregular in size   (4)
       
4 (3) Outer phyllaries with thick horns.   90 T. brevicorniculatum (see also key to T. sect. Ceratoidea)
+ Outer phyllaries flat to ± minutely corniculate   (5)
       
5 (4) Outer phyllaries patent, arcuate-patent, erect-patent or subrecurved, not appressed to erect   (6)
+ Outer phyllaries appressed, loosely appressed, or erect   (9)
       
6 (5) Outer phyllaries imbricate; leaves ± glabrous.   79 T. tonsum
+ Outer phyllaries not imbricate; leaves sparsely arachnoid   (7)
       
7 (6) Outer phyllaries with a broad paler border to 2 mm wide.   71 T. horizontale
+ Outer phyllaries with a narrow pale border 0.1-0.2 mm wide   (8)
       
8 (7) Achene cone subcylindric, 0.8-0.9 mm.   72 T. perplexans
+ Achene cone ± conic, 0.5-0.7 mm.   80 T. damnabile
       
9 (5) Outer phyllaries not imbricate   (10)
+ Outer phyllaries imbricate   (13)
       
10 (9) Achene body abruptly narrowing into a ca. 0.4 mm cone.   77 T. icterinum
+ Achene body gradually narrowing into a 0.8-1.1 mm cone   (11)
       
11 (10) Outer phyllaries 8-9 mm.   84 T. simulans
+ Outer phyllaries 4-7 mm   (12)
       
12 (11) Stigmas yellow.   81 T. adglabrum
+ Stigmas light discolored.   88 T. puberulum
       
13 (9) Stigmas yellow.   79 T. tonsum
+ Stigmas discolored   (14)
       
14 (13) Involucre base obconic.   78 T. cyathiforme
+ Involucre base rounded to truncate   (15)
       
15 (14) Outer phyllaries 6-8 mm wide.   82 T. subcontristans
+ Outer phyllaries 3-5 mm wide   (16)
       
16 (15) Paler border to outer phyllaries 0.5-1 mm wide   (17)
+ Paler border to outer phyllaries not developed or 0.1-0.2 mm wide   (18)
       
17 (16) Achene body subabruptly narrowing into a conic 0.7-0.9 mm cone; beak ca. 6 mm; stigmas blackish green.   87 T. potaninii
+ Achene body ± gradually narrowing into a subcylindric. 8-1 mm cone; beak ca. 9 mm; stigmas yellowish green.   89 T. protractifolium
       
18 (16) Achene cone 0.4-0.6 mm   (19)
+ Achene cone 0.8-1.1 mm   (20)
       
19 (18) Achene body 1-1.2 mm thick, lateral ridges prominent and with large remote spinules; distal margin of leaf lateral lobes dentate; leaf lobes not approximate.   73 T. imbricatius
+ Achene body ca. 0.9 mm thick, lateral ridges not prominent and with ± dense, medium-sized spinules; distal margin of leaf lateral lobes entire; leaf lobes approximate.   76 T. abbreviatulum
       
20 (18) Achene 4.3-4.5 mm, cone 0.9-1.1 mm; outer phyllaries 14-17; leaf blade interlobes usually conspicuously spotted purplish brown.   74 T. pseudocalanthodium
+ Achene 3.8-4 mm, cone 0.8-0.9 mm; outer phyllaries 17-20; leaf blade interlobes not spotted or faintly so.   85 T. subcalanthodium

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