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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae | Artemisia

3. Artemisia sect. Artemisia

艾组 ai zu

Herbs, perennial, rarely subshrubs, usually arachnoid tomentose or pubescent, or glabrous, without glandular or viscid hairs (sessile glands often present). Leaves 1 or 2(or 3)-pinnatipartite to pinnatisect, or entire; lobes or lobules linear, linear-lanceolate, elliptic, or narrowly elliptic, more than (1.5-)2 mm wide, lacerate, or lobules broadly serrate, more than 5 × 5 mm. Capitula usually ellipsoid or ovoid, rarely campanulate, hemispheric, or subglobose; phyllary margins scarious, midvein green or sometimes brown. Receptacle glabrous. Marginal florets (1-)3-15(-20); corolla narrowly tubular or rarely narrowly conical, 2- or 3(or 4)-toothed or without teeth. Disk florets 4-45, bisexual, ovaries well developed; style ca. as long as or longer than corolla, branches divergent, recurved at apex.

About 100 species: more than 70 species in Asia and Europe, 27 species in North America, a few species in S Hemisphere; 56 species (28 endemic) in China.

Many species contain monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids.


1 Leaves obviously white or brown gland-dotted, with concave reticulate venation or glands, glands deciduous   (2)
+ Leaves without concave reticulate venation, usually not gland-dotted   (14)
       
2 (1) Middle stem leaves 1- or 2-pinnatisect, segments (3 or)4 or 5 pairs   (3)
+ Middle stem leaves entire, or 2- or 3-cleft, or pinnatifid, if pinnatisect then segments 1-3 pairs only   (5)
       
3 (2) Stem, branches, and phyllaries glabrous or sparsely puberulent, glabrescent; leaves brown gland-dotted, lobes acuminate.   79 A. occidentalisinensis
+ Stem, branches, and phyllaries pubescent; leaves white gland-dotted, lobes obtuse   (4)
       
4 (3) Stem, branches, and phyllaries rust-colored or brown tomentose or pubescent; leaves abaxially gray tomentose; capitula hemispheric or subovoid, 3-4(-5) mm in diam., in relatively long narrow panicles.   99 A. imponens
+ Stem, branches, and phyllaries gray puberulent; leaves abaxially arachnoid pubescent; phyllaries puberulent initially, later glabrescent; capitula subglobose or ovoid, 1-2 mm in diam., in broad, much-branched panicles.   61 A. zhongdianensis
       
5 (2) Middle stem leaves entire or 2- or 3-cleft or -partite, mixed sparsely serrate, attenuate basally, sessile; capitula 3-4 mm in diam.; phyllaries abaxially arachnoid tomentose with dark brown center.   54 A. stolonifera
+ Middle stem leaves 1- or 2-pinnatipartite, or 1- or 2-pinnatisect and then segments 1-3 pairs only; capitula 1.5-3 mm in diam.; phyllaries pubescent or not, but without dark brown center   (6)
       
6 (5) Middle stem leaves 1- or 2-pinnatisect   (7)
+ Middle stem leaves 1- or 2-pinnatipartite to -pinnatifid   (10)
       
7 (6) Branches (3-)5-10 cm; middle stem leaves 5-10 × 3-8 cm, lobules lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, more than 3 mm wide   (8)
+ Branches 2-3(-5) cm; middle stem leaves less than 4 × 4 cm, lobules linear, less than 3 mm wide   (9)
       
8 (7) Middle stem leaves (1 or)2-pinnatisect, adaxially arachnoid pubescent, later glabrescent; phyllaries arachnoid tomentose.   58 A. lavandulifolia
+ Middle stem leaves 1(or 2)-pinnatisect, adaxially subglabrous; phyllaries sparsely arachnoid pubescent, later glabrescent.   59 A. verlotorum
       
9 (7) Leaves adaxially sparsely pubescent, abaxially densely tomentose, apex obtuse; phyllaries densely arachnoid tomentose.   60 A. kanashiroi
+ Leaves adaxially puberulent, later glabrescent, abaxially densely arachnoid tomentose, lobules acute; phyllaries puberulent initially, later glabrescent.   64 A. lancea
       
10 (6) Middle stem leaf segments 2 or 3 pairs, lobes 2-3(-4) mm wide.   55 A. argyi
+ Middle stem leaf segments 1 or 2 pairs, lobes usually (3-)5-30 mm wide   (11)
       
11 (10) Middle stem leaves 3-lobed, middle lobe 6-10 × 1.5-3 cm, larger than laterals, abaxially densely gray or yellowish and arachnoid pubescent; leaf apex acuminate   (12)
+ Middle stem leaves (3 or)5-lobed, middle lobe 2-6 × 0.3-0.6(-1) cm, subequal to or slightly larger than lateral lobes, abaxially yellow pubescent, veins sparsely puberulent; leaf apex acute   (13)
       
12 (11) Plants (30-)80-150 cm tall; phyllaries densely arachnoid pubescent; bisexual florets 7-13.   56 A. gilvescens
+ Plants 150-200 cm tall or more; phyllaries sparsely pubescent or glabrescent; bisexual florets 12-16.   57 A. austroyunnanensis
       
13 (11) Middle lobe of leaf blade slightly larger than lateral lobes, adaxially sparsely puberulent; capitula in broad panicles, ovoid; phyllaries pubescent.   62 A. calophylla
+ Middle lobe of leaf blade subequal to lateral lobes, adaxially sparsely barbate; capitula in narrow panicles, ellipsoid; phyllaries sparsely arachnoid pubescent.   63 A. velutina
       
14 (1) Middle stem leaves entire, margin serrate or not, or 3-5-partite   (15)
+ Middle stem leaves pinnately 1-3-divided   (22)
       
15 (14) Middle stem leaves palmately or ternately 3- or 5-partite   (16)
+ Middle stem leaves entire   (17)
       
16 (15) Synflorescence a lax, broad panicle; capitula 4-5 mm in diam.   88 A. tafelii
+ Synflorescence a long, narrow panicle; capitula 2-2.5 mm in diam.   105 A. selengensis
       
17 (15) Leaves 8-13 cm, margin serrulate.   87 A. viridissima
+ Leaves less than 8 cm, margin entire or occasionally 1-3-serrate or remotely toothed   (18)
       
18 (17) Stem, branches, leaves, and phyllaries glabrous or puberulent initially, glabrescent; capitula subglobose, ovoid, or ovoid-campanulate   (19)
+ Stem, branches, leaves, and phyllaries arachnoid tomentose and pubescent; capitula ellipsoid or oblong   (20)
       
19 (18) Middle stem leaves widest above middle; capitula 3-3.5 mm in diam.   106 A. keiskeana
+ Middle stem leaves widest at or below middle; capitula 1-2 mm in diam.   82 A. nilagirica
       
20 (18) Middle stem leaves 0.3-0.6 cm wide, apex obtuse, usually entire, rarely 1- or 2-serrate.   84 A. subulata
+ Middle stem leaves (0.7-)1.5-2.5(-3) cm wide, apex acuminate, 1-3-serrate or lacerate at apex   (21)
       
21 (20) Capitula (2.5-)3-4 mm in diam.; bisexual florets 20-30.   83 A. integrifolia
+ Capitula 2-2.5 mm in diam.; bisexual florets 10-15.   105 A. selengensis
       
22 (14) Middle stem leaves with 1 or 2 pairs of segments   (23)
+ Middle stem leaves with 2-6(or 7) pairs of segments   (24)
       
23 (22) Subshrubs, 10-20 cm tall; middle stem leaves 1-1.5 cm, lobe apices obtuse.   69 A. nujianensis
+ Perennial herbs, 80-200 cm tall; middle stem leaves 6-12 cm, lobe apices acuminate.   86 A. viridisquama
       
24 (22) Capitula 5-10 mm in diam., bisexual florets 30-60   (25)
+ Capitula 1.5-5 mm in diam., bisexual florets 4-25 (30-35 in A. moorcroftiana)   (26)
       
25 (24) Capitula 6-10 mm in diam., synflorescence a simple terminal raceme; phyllaries densely yellowish pubescent.   100 A. smithii
+ Capitula 5-7 mm in diam., synflorescence a slender panicle with at least lower capitula on lateral branches; phyllaries rust-colored pubescent.   101 A. speciosa
       
26 (24) Capitula (3-)3.5-5 mm in diam   (27)
+ Capitula 1.5-3(-3.5) in diam., ellipsoid, oblong, ovoid, or ovoid-oblong, usually in laxer synflorescences   (43)
       
27 (26) Leaf blade abaxially glabrous.   92 A. tainingensis
+ Leaf blade abaxially puberulent to tomentose   (28)
       
28 (27) Leaf blade abaxially pubescent or puberulent, sometimes arachnoid or silky   (29)
+ Leaf blade abaxially tomentose, sometimes pubescent on veins   (34)
       
29 (28) Plants 8-30 cm tall; middle stem leaves 1.5-4 × 0.5-2 cm   (30)
+ Plants 60-130(-200) cm tall; middle stem leaves 6-22 × 4-18 cm   (31)
       
30 (29) Phyllaries puberulent; leaf blade abaxially densely gray pubescent; plant 30-50 cm tall.   95 A. youngii
+ Phyllaries densely brown-yellow tomentose; leaf blade abaxially yellowish pubescent; plant 8-30 cm tall.   97 A. comaiensis
       
31 (29) Middle stem leaves with 2 or 3(or 4) pairs of segments.   70 A. robusta
+ Middle stem leaves with (3 or)4-6 pairs of segments   (32)
       
32 (31) Leaves 3.5-4 cm wide, lobules 5-8 mm.   104 A. somae
+ Leaves 4-12 cm wide, lobules 10-15 mm   (33)
       
33 (32) Capitula subglobose; phyllaries not brown, pubescent.   102 A. sinensis
+ Capitula ovoid-campanulate or ovoid; phyllaries brown, glabrescent.   109 A. taibaishanensis
       
34 (28) Middle stem leaves 13-19 cm.   89 A. montana
+ Middle stem leaves 6-12 cm   (35)
       
35 (34) Plants 8-30(-35) cm tall   (36)
+ Plants 30-150 cm tall   (38)
       
36 (35) Perennial herbs; phyllaries white tomentose; female florets 13-16.   92 A. tainingensis
+ Subshrubs; phyllaries densely pubescent; female florets 8-10   (37)
       
37 (36) Leaf blade abaxially densely white tomentose, adaxially sparsely sericeous- tomentose.   103 A. kawakamii
+ Leaf blade abaxially densely gray or yellowish tomentose, adaxially glabrescent.   94 A. campbellii
       
38 (35) Middle stem leaves with 2 or 3 pairs of segments   (39)
+ Middle stem leaves with (3 or)4-6 pairs of segments   (41)
       
39 (38) Synflorescence a ± broad panicle; phyllaries gray arachnoid tomentose; leaf blades adaxially gray tomentose when young.   81 A. igniaria
+ Synflorescence a narrow panicle; phyllaries arachnoid pubescent; leaf blades adaxially sparsely arachnoid pubescent   (40)
       
40 (39) Leaf blade pinnatipartite, adaxially glandular punctuate.   68 A. leucophylla
+ Leaf blade pinnatisect, adaxially not glandular punctuate.   85 A. brachyphylla
       
41 (38) Largest leaf blade (1.5-)3-5.5 × (1.5-)2-3 cm; plants 30-70 cm tall; female florets 5-9; bisexual florets 8-15.   98 A. orientalihengduangensis
+ Largest leaf blade 6-14 × 3.5-4 cm; plants 70-130(-150) cm tall; female florets 10-20; bisexual florets 15-35   (42)
       
42 (41) Perennial herbs 80-150 cm tall; synflorescence a lax, much-branched, broad panicle.   71 A. qinlingensis
+ Subshrubs 50-70 cm tall; synflorescence a narrow panicle.   90 A. moorcroftiana
       
43 (26) Middle stem leaves with 4-6 pairs of segments   (44)
+ Middle stem leaves with 1-3(or 4) pairs of segments, if 4 then phyllaries densely arachnoid pubescent   (51)
       
44 (43) Plants 30-40 cm tall   (45)
+ Plants (45-)50-160 cm tall   (46)
       
45 (44) Plants glabrescent; phyllaries ± glabrous; middle stem leaves 0.5-1.5 cm wide, ultimate lobules elliptic, 3-4 mm.   93 A. orientalixizangensis
+ Plants tomentose; phyllaries sparsely yellowish tomentose; middle stem leaves 1.5-2.5 cm wide, ultimate lobules linear-lanceolate, 5-8 mm.   96 A. jilongensis
       
46 (44) Leaf blade abaxially sparsely gray pubescent or glabrescent.   107 A. fulgens
+ Leaf blade abaxially densely arachnoid tomentose   (47)
       
47 (46) Capitula 3-3.5 mm in diam., usually widely spaced along branches; female florets 10-15.   71 A. qinlingensis
+ Capitula 1.5-3(-3.5) mm in diam., if more than 3 mm then densely spaced; female florets 2-10   (48)
       
48 (47) Middle stem leaves ± sessile; bisexual florets 8-20   (49)
+ Middle stem leaves petiolate; bisexual florets 4-8   (50)
       
49 (48) Lobules of middle stem leaves linear or linear-lanceolate.   65 A. vulgaris
+ Lobules of middle stem leaves elliptic, oblong, or serrate.   72 A. phyllobotrys
       
50 (48) Stem and branches glabrescent; middle stem leaves with petiole 1-1.5 cm, blade 4-5 cm.   76 A. divaricata
+ Stem and branches densely intermixed gray and yellowish long pubescent and tomentose; middle stem leaves with petiole 0.3-0.5 cm, blade 6-8 cm.   91 A. abaensis
       
51 (43) Subshrubs 10-20 cm tall; middle stem leaves 1-1.5 × 0.8-1 cm, 1-pinnatipartite with 1 or 2 pairs of segments.   69 A. nujianensis
+ Perennial herbs, less often subshrubs, 30-150 cm tall; middle stem leaves 2-18(-20) × 2-10 cm, 1- or 2-pinnatipartite or pinnatisect with 2 or 3(or 4) pairs of segments   (52)
       
52 (51) Phyllaries glabrous or glabrescent   (53)
+ Phyllaries persistently arachnoid tomentose or pubescent   (59)
       
53 (52) Leaf blade pinnatisect, segments 1- or 2-paired, or leaf entire; capitula not subtended by leaflike bracts.   105 A. selengensis
+ Leaf blade 1- or 2-pinnatipartite to subpinnatisect, segments 2-4-paired; capitula mostly subtended by leaflike bracts   (54)
       
54 (53) Leaf blade (8-)10-18(-20) cm, abaxially pubescent, sparsely gray arachnoid tomentose or glabrescent   (55)
+ Leaf blade 5-10 cm, abaxially densely gray arachnoid tomentose   (57)
       
55 (54) Capitula subglobose or ovoid, 1.5-2.5 mm in diam., in broad, much-branched panicles.   108 A. sylvatica
+ Capitula oblong or ellipsoid, (1.5-)2-3 mm in diam., in narrow or somewhat broad, rarely broad, panicles   (56)
       
56 (55) Leaf blade ovate or elliptic-ovate, (7-)14-18(-20) cm; phyllaries not brown.   80 A. incisa
+ Leaf blade suborbicular or broadly ovate, 10-14 cm; phyllaries brown.   109 A. taibaishanensis
       
57 (54) Middle stem leaves (1 or)2-pinnatisect, segments lanceolate, linear-lanceolate, or linear, 2-6(-10) mm wide; synflorescence branchlets densely spicate.   75 A. rubripes
+ Middle stem leaves 1- or 2-pinnatisect or -partite or -cleft, segments not as above; synflorescence branchlets laxer, more racemelike   (58)
       
58 (57) Middle stem leaves with 3(or 4) pairs of segments, distal lobe larger than lateral lobes, lateral lobes 1- or 2-partite; capitula erect or ± nodding.   77 A. indica
+ Middle stem leaves with 2(or 3) pairs of segments, distal lobe larger than lateral lobes, basal lobes larger than lateral lobes, lobes entire or rarely 1- or 2-serrate; capitula nodding.   78 A. princeps
       
59 (52) Branches more than 20 cm; phyllaries with brown centers.   66 A. yunnanensis
+ Branches less than 20 cm; phyllaries not with brown centers   (60)
       
60 (59) Middle stem leaves elliptic or oblong, 1(or 2)-pinnatipartite, segments (2 or)3 or 4 pairs, elliptic, acuminate, 1- or 2-serrate, base attenuate; capitula in narrow panicles.   85 A. brachyphylla
+ Middle stem leaves not as above; capitula in broad or somewhat broad or narrow panicles   (61)
       
61 (60) Middle stem leaves (1 or)2-pinnatisect, lobules linear, linear-lanceolate, or lanceolate, acute apically   (62)
+ Middle stem leaves 1- or 2-pinnatipartite or 1-pinnatisect, lobules elliptic or elliptic- lanceolate, rarely linear-lanceolate and then obtuse apically   (63)
       
62 (61) Middle stem leaves with (2 or)3(or 4) pairs of segments; capitula 2-3 mm in diam., in broad panicles.   67 A. roxburghiana
+ Middle stem leaves with 2 or 3 pairs of segments; capitula 1.5-2 mm in diam., in narrow or somewhat broad panicles.   73 A. mongolica
       
63 (61) Branches more than 20 cm; middle stem leaves with 2 or 3 pairs of segments, lobes and lobules obtuse apically, petiole tomentose at base; capitula in broad panicles; phyllaries densely arachnoid pubescent, brown at center.   66 A. yunnanensis
+ Branches less than 10 cm; middle stem leaves with 3(or 4) pairs of segments; petiole not tomentose at base; capitula in narrow or somewhat broad panicles; phyllaries puberulent, not brown at center   (64)
       
64 (63) Leaves arachnoid tomentose, blades of lowermost stem leaves elliptic or ovate- elliptic, middle stem leaves 1-pinnatisect, with 2 or 3(or 4) pairs of segments; capitula in dense panicles.   68 A. leucophylla
+ Leaves arachnoid pubescent, glabrescent, blades of lowermost stem leaves ovate, suborbicular, or broadly ovate, middle stem leaves 2-pinnatipartite or -sect, with 3(or 4) pairs of segments; capitula in lax panicles.   74 A. verbenacea

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