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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 20-21 | Asteraceae | Artemisia

6. Artemisia sect. Dracunculus Besser, Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou. 8: 3, 8. 1835.

龙蒿组 long hao zu

Oligosporus Cassini, Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 1817: 33. 1817.

Shrubs, subshrubs, or herbs, perennial, annual, or biennial, puberulent or pubescent, often glabrescent, rarely tomentose, without glandular or viscid hairs (sessile glands often present). Leaves 1- or 2-pinnatisect, less often subpalmately 5-7-partite or entire; lobules 0.3-1.5(-2.5) mm wide, or pectinate, less than 1.5 × 1.5 mm. Capitula globose to ovoid. Phyllary margins scarious. Receptacle glabrous. Marginal florets 2-20(-29); corolla tubular or narrowly conical, often slightly enlarged at base, 2- or 3-toothed. Disk florets 3-20(-35), male; ovaries minute, rarely absent; style shorter than corolla, 2-cleft, lobes usually not divergent, apex clavate or funnelform.

About 80 species: N Hemisphere, mainly in arid areas, a few species in N Africa, Central America, and N South America; 35 species (17 endemic) in China.

Many species contain aromatic compounds and some sesquiterpenoids and/or limited monoterpenoids.


1 Leaves entire, linear, linear-lanceolate, elliptic-lanceolate, or lanceolate, occasionally some with 1(or 2) lateral lobes or apex 3-cleft.   135 A. dracunculus
+ Leaves 1-3(or 4)-pinnatisect, lobules narrowly linear   (2)
       
2 (1) Capitula (2.5-)3-6 mm in diam., or if 2.5-3 mm in diam. then plants shrubs or subshrubs, middle stem leaf lobules stiff, 1.5-3 mm wide   (3)
+ Capitula 1-2.5(-3) in diam.; middle stem leaf lobules narrowly linear or filiform, 0.5-1.5(-2) mm wide; or if capitula 2-2.5(-3) mm in diam. then plants herbaceous, lobules of leaves thin, 0.5-1 mm wide   (12)
       
3 (2) Plants more than 60 cm tall; involucres (3-)4-6 mm in diam., if less than 4 mm then involucres ovoid, lobules of middle stem leaves filiform or linear, 20-30 × 1.5-2.5 mm, or lobules falcate   (4)
+ Plants to 20-50(-60) cm tall; capitula (2.5-)3(-4) mm in diam., or if more than 4 mm then capitula globose and lobules in middle stem leaves linear to filiform, 5-10 × 0.5-1 mm, or leaves palmately 5-7-partite   (7)
       
4 (3) Subshrubs, shortly capitate branched; lowermost and middle stem leaves less than 1 cm wide, pinnatisect, segments 1 or 2 pairs; capitula in spicate-racemose or narrow panicles; capitula 5-6 mm in diam.   139 A. kangmarensis
+ Shrubs, much branched; middle stem leaves (1 or)2-pinnatisect, segments 2 or 3 pairs, or 4 pairs and then leaves ovate or broadly ovate, more than 1 cm wide; capitula in broad or narrow panicles; capitula (2.5-)3-5 mm in diam   (5)
       
5 (4) Capitula ovoid, erect, in broad and branched or somewhat broad panicles; stem purple; lower leaves with 3-5 pairs of segments, middle leaves with (2 or)3 or 4 pairs of segments.   138 A. halodendron
+ Capitula globose or subglobose, nodding, in broad or narrow panicles; stem gray, brown or yellowish; lower leaves with 2-4 pairs of segments, middle leaves with 2 or 3(or 4) pairs   (6)
       
6 (5) Middle stem leaves (5-)6-8 × 3-4 cm, segments 2 or 3(or 4) pairs, lobules narrowly linear, straight; capitula in narrow or somewhat broad panicles; stem gray.   137 A. wudanica
+ Middle stem leaves 2-5(-8) × 1.5-3(-4) cm, segments (1 or)2 or 3 pairs, lobules linear or falcate; capitula in lax and broad panicles; stem yellowish.   136 A. sphaerocephala
       
7 (3) Stem unbranched or few and shortly capitate branched, pubescent; leaves palmately 5-7-partite, sericeous-pubescent on both surfaces; capitula in narrow panicles; phyllaries pubescent.   155 A. kuschakewiczii
+ Stem branched, pubescent or glabrescent; leaves 1 or 2(or 3)-pinnatisect; capitula in broad or narrow panicles; phyllaries pubescent or glabrescent   (8)
       
8 (7) Lowermost and middle stem leaves 2(or 3)-pinnatisect, lobules 0.5-0.8 mm wide; capitula hemispheric, pedunculate, in narrow racemelike panicles.   165 A. oligocarpa
+ Lowermost and middle stem leaves 1- or 2-pinnatisect, lobules 1-2.5 mm wide; capitula not hemispheric, if pedunculate then leaf lobes falcate; capitula in broad or narrow panicles   (9)
       
9 (8) Stem less than 30 cm tall; leaflike bracts 2-3 × capitula and longer than fertile branches; synflorescence a narrow panicle   (10)
+ Stem 30-60 cm tall; leaflike bracts longer than capitula but shorter than fertile branches; synflorescence a broad panicle   (11)
       
10 (9) Middle stem leaves 1-2 × 0.5-1.5 cm, pinnatisect, midvein flat.   150 A. wellbyi
+ Middle stem leaves 3.5-4.5 × 2-3 cm, 2-pinnatisect, midvein abaxially prominent, white.   152 A. gyangzeensis
       
11 (9) Lateral lobes of middle stem leaves linear, linear-lanceolate, or falcate-lanceolate, 1.5-2.5 mm wide.   151 A. waltonii
+ Lateral lobes of middle stem leaves narrowly linear or filiform, straight, 1-1.5 mm wide.   142 A. prattii
       
12 (2) Shrubs or caespitose subshrubs, with strong woody stock; lobules of middle stem leaves narrowly linear or filiform, 0.5-1.5(-2) mm wide; growing in arid areas   (13)
+ Perennial, annual, or biennial herbs, root solitary, or nearly subshrubs but not caespitose and lobules of leaves thin and soft, other lobules narrowly linear, filiform, or linear-lanceolate, less than 1 mm wide; not growing in arid areas   (23)
       
13 (12) Lower branches more than 12 cm, upper branches more than 5 cm; capitula in broad panicles   (14)
+ Lower branches 4-10 cm, upper branches 3-5 cm; capitula in narrow or somewhat broad panicles   (18)
       
14 (13) Petiole in middle stem leaves 2-3(-4.5) cm; capitula subglobose.   143 A. klementzae
+ Leaves sessile or petioles less than 1.5 cm in middle stem leaves; capitula ovoid or ovoid-ellipsoid   (15)
       
15 (14) Middle stem leaves pinnatisect, lobes 0.5-1 mm, rarely mixed 1- or 2-lobuled at basal or middle lobes.   141 A. ordosica
+ Middle stem leaves (1 or)2-pinnatisect, 3-lobuled at basal and middle lobes, lobes or lobules 1.5-2 mm   (16)
       
16 (15) Branches many, nearly horizontal; lobule apex obtuse, mucronulate.   140 A. songarica
+ Branches ascending; lobule apex acute   (17)
       
17 (16) Bark usually deciduous; lobules 15-20 × 1.5-2 mm.   146 A. oxycephala
+ Bark persistent; lobules 4-10 × (0.5-)1-1.5 mm.   147 A. campestris
       
18 (13) Lower and middle stem leaves pinnatisect, segments of lowermost leaves 2 or 3 pairs, segments of middle leaves 1 or 2 pairs   (19)
+ Lowermost and middle stem leaves 2(or 3)-pinnatisect, segments of lowermost leaves 4 or 5 pairs   (21)
       
19 (18) Ultimate lobules of leaves 1.5-2.5 mm wide; involucre 2-2.5 mm in diam.   145 A. xanthochroa
+ Ultimate lobules of leaves 0.5-1.5 mm; involucre 2-2.5(-3) mm in diam   (20)
       
20 (19) Involucre semi-globose or subglobose, 2.5(-3) mm in diam.; disk florets 5-10.   154 A. nortonii
+ Involucre ovoid-oblong or ellipsoid, 2-2.5 mm in diam.; disk florets 4-6.   149 A. saposhnikovii
       
21 (18) Middle stem leaf segments 3 or 4(or 5) pairs; synflorescence a broad, conical panicle.   148 A. marschalliana
+ Middle stem leaf segments 2 or 3 pairs; synflorescence a narrow, cylindric panicle   (22)
       
22 (21) Lowermost and middle stem leaves 1.5-2.5 × 1-1.5 cm, lowermost 1- or 2-pinnatisect, segments 2-5 pairs; capitula 1.5-2.5 mm in diam., in narrow panicles.   153 A. xigazeensis
+ Lowermost and middle stem leaves less than 1 × 1 cm, 2-pinnatisect, segments 2 pairs; capitula 1-1.5 mm in diam., in somewhat broad or narrow panicles.   144 A. globosoides
       
23 (12) Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs, root solitary, narrowly fusiform; lobules of middle stem leaves soft and thin, narrowly linear-filiform or narrowly linear-lanceolate,. 2-0.5(-1) mm wide   (24)
+ Perennial herbs, or nearly subshrubs, roots several, rarely solitary, but not narrowly fusiform; lobules in middle stem leaves narrowly linear, more than (0.5-)1 mm wide   (28)
       
24 (23) Segments of middle stem leaves 5-8 pairs; phyllaries gray puberulent.   169 A. blepharolepis
+ Segments of middle stem leaves (1 or)2-4 pairs; phyllaries often glabrous or glabrescent   (25)
       
25 (24) Middle stem leaves 2-pinnatisect, segments (3 or)4 pairs; capitula densely spicate on branches and in narrow or somewhat broad panicles.   167 A. stricta
+ Middle stem leaves 1- or 2-pinnatisect, segments (1 or)2 or 3 pairs; capitula spreading on branches and in broad paniculate or spicate-panicles   (26)
       
26 (25) Plants less than 20 cm tall, branched from base of stem, and usually procumbent; middle stem leaves pinnatisect; capitula in spicate panicles.   160 A. demissa
+ Plants more than 20 cm tall, branched from middle or basally on stem; middle stem leaves 2-pinnatisect; capitula in broad panicles   (27)
       
27 (26) Middle stem leaves gray or yellowish sericeous-pubescent, later glabrescent; capitula 1.5-2 mm in diam., sessile or shortly pedunculate, in broad panicles.   166 A. scoparia
+ Middle stem leaves persistent pubescent; capitula 1-1.5 mm in diam., shortly pedunculate, in much-branched panicles.   168 A. pewzowii
       
28 (23) Plants less and shorter branched; capitula in narrow panicles.   161 A. macilenta
+ Plants more and long branched; capitula in broad or somewhat broad, rarely narrow, panicles   (29)
       
29 (28) Capitula 1-1.5(-2) mm in diam., spreading apically on branches or branchlets and in broad and elongated panicles   (30)
+ Capitula 1.5-2 mm in diam., spreading on whole branches or branchlets   (31)
       
30 (29) Basal and lowermost leaves 7-8 × 5-7.5 cm, 2- or 3-pinnatisect or -partite, lobules 10-20 × 2-4 mm; phyllaries revolute at apex.   162 A. chienshanica
+ Basal and lowermost leaves 2-4(-5) × 1.5-3.5 cm, 2(or 3)-pinnatisect, lobules 5-10 × 0.5-1.5(-2) mm; phyllaries erect at apex.   163 A. capillaris
       
31 (29) Middle stem leaves 1(or 2)-pinnatisect, segments 1 or 2(or 3) pairs, lobules narrowly linear; capitula several, in narrow or somewhat broad panicles   (32)
+ Middle stem leaves 1-pinnatisect, or 2-pinnatisect and then lobes or lobules linear-lanceolate or nearly subulate, segments in middle stem leaves (2 or)3 pairs; capitula in broad or somewhat broad, rarely narrow, panicles   (33)
       
32 (31) Middle stem leaves 3-3.5 × 3-4 cm, lobes (10-)20-30 × 1-2 mm; capitula in narrow panicles.   164 A. morrisonensis
+ Middle stem leaves 1.5-2.5 × 1.5-2.5 cm, lobes 3-5 × 0.5-1 mm; capitula in somewhat broad panicles.   159 A. gansuensis
       
33 (31) Branches and leaves gray pubescent, later glabrescent; lobules of leaves narrowly linear or narrowly linear-lanceolate.   158 A. pubescens
+ Branches and leaves persistent gray or yellowish pubescent; lobules of leaves linear-lanceolate or narrowly linear-subulate or subulate   (34)
       
34 (33) Branches and leaves densely gray pubescent; lobules of leaves linear-lanceolate.   156 A. forrestii
+ Branches and leaves densely yellowish pubescent; lobules of leaves narrowly linear-lanceolate or subulate.   157 A. mairei

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