26. Dicranum spurium Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 141. 1801.
Bryum spurium (Hedw.) Dickson, Fasc. Pl. Crypt. Brit. 4: 13. 1801. Cecalyphum spurium (Hedw.) P. de Beauv., Prodr. Aetheogam. 51. 1805.
Plants medium-sized to moderately large, 2–5 cm high, rather robust, dull, yellowish green or yellowish brown, not shiny, in loose to dense tufts. Stems erect, usually branched, rarely simple, often interruptedly foliate, moderately tomentose below. Leaves crowded or loosely imbricate, falcate-secund to crispate when dry, erect-spreading when moist, usually undulate, ovate-lanceolate, 3–5 mm × 0.8–1.2 mm, contracted at base, gradually narrowed above the middle from an ovate base, to a short, broadly acuminate apex; margins plane, entire below, serrulate in the upper 1/3; costa rather stout, percurrent or nearly so, serrate or ridged at back above; upper cells small, rounded quadrate or irregularly quadrate, thick-walled, somewhat porose, often strongly papillose or projecting at back; basal cells elongate, linear-rhomboidal, ca. 80 µm × 14 µm, thick-walled, porose; alar cells weakly differentiated, quadrate or short-rectangular, usually bistratose, brownish, not extending to the costa. Dioicous. Male plants dwarfed. Setae single, pale brownish, 12–24 mm long; capsules oblong-ovoid, 1.7–2.3 mm long, curved, asymmetric, inclined to horizontal, furrowed when dry and empty, strumose at base; stomata present; opercula conic-rostrate; annuli in 2 rows of large cells, revoluble; peristome teeth ca. 0.5 mm long, 2–3 divided to the middle, deep brownish, papillose above, transversally barred below. Spores 20–24 µm in diameter, brownish.
Chinese specimens examined: HEILONGJIANG: Da Xing An Ling (Greater Khingan Mt.), C. Gao 12758 (MO). JILIN: Wu-song Co., S.-E. Liu 8773 (IFSBH). NEI MONGOL: Da Xing An Ling (Greater Khingan Mt.), P.-C. Chen & C. Gao 7360 (IFSBH).
Habitat: on peat lands or grasslands; Distribution: China, Korea, Japan, Russia, Europe, and North America.
Illustrations: C. Gao (ed.) 1994 (Pl. 116, figs. 9–14).