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Pakistan | Family List | Gentianaceae

5. Ciminalis Adans., Fam. 2: 504. 1763. Love & Love in Bot. Not. 128: 1975; V. Zuyev in Bot. Zhurn. 70: 920. 1985; Omer & Qaiser in Pak. J. Bot. 24:99. 1992; Omer & Qaiser in Edinb. J. Bot. 50:63-74. 1993.


  • Gentiana L.

    Annuals (rarely perennials), herbs, mostly forming branched creeping mats with several shoots from rootstock. Leaves basal and cauline; arranged variously: mostly imbricately arranged on shoots, sometimes not so in opposite phyllotaxy, pedicellate or sessile or subsessile; variously shaped: linear, lanceolate, elliptic, ovate, obovate, oblanceolate; basal leaves usually longer than cauline leaves, lax - densely rosulate. Inflorescence a raceme, fascicles or cymes. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, 4-5 (-9) merous. Calyx divided, united at base, lobes joined by an inner membrane or inner membrane absent, tube cons icuous, persistent. Corolla campanulate to infundibuliform or hypocraetiform, mostly in shades of blue, violet, purple, reddish, pink, yellow, cream or white; provided with subsidiary lobes or plicate, plicae smaller than and alternating with corolla lobes; corolla throat naked inside i.e. fimbriae absent. Anther corresponding with the number of petals. Anthers as a rule basifixed with filaments inserted deep into corolla tube and alternate to corolla lobes or opposing the subsidiary lobes (plicae). Ovary superior, unilocular, placentation parietal, style short or absent, stigmas two, persistent, mostly coiled. Nectaries present at the base of the ovary. Capsule elliptic-oblong, long or short stalked or subsessile, dehiscing septicidally from apex. Seeds brownish or dark brownish, ellipsoidal, ovate or rounded, reticulate.

    A genus of 200-300 species, distributed in cold and alpine regions of both the hemispheres. In Pakistan, represented by 10 species, distributed in N.W. Pakistan (Chitral, Gilgit, Baltistan, Hazara, Potohar, and N.W.F.P.) and Kashmir.

    1 Stamens apiculate. Dark coloured spots at the base of calyx tube   8 Ciminalis baltistanica
    + Stamens not apiculate. No spots at the base of calyx tube   (2)
    2 (1) Plants glandularly pubescent, at least the stem   (3)
    + Plants completely glabrous, rarely puberulent, but never glandular   (4)
    3 (2) Flowers solitary. Calyx lobes mucronate, white margined. Plicae bibbed   9 Ciminalis squarrosa
    + Flowers in fascicles. Calyx lobes minute, margin cartilaginous. Plicae crenulate   10 Ciminalis capitata
    4 (2) Calyx lobes cartilaginous   (5)
    + Calyx lobes membranous   4 Ciminalis harwanensis
    5 (4) Flowers in terminal fascicles, campanulate   (6)
    + Flowers solitary, infundibular-tubular   (9)
    6 (5) Plicae bilobed, obovate   6 Ciminalis pseudoaquatica
    + Plicae unilobed, lanceolate   (7)
    7 (6) Plants branched from base. Leaves ovate-obovate (spathulate)   (8)
    + Plants branched from middle or above. Leaves broadly ovate-spathulate or orbicular   3 Ciminalis riparia
    8 (7) Leaves imbricately arranged. Plants not fleshy   5 Ciminalis karelinii
    + Leaves lax. Plants fleshy   2 Ciminalis prostrata
    9 (5) Plicae bibbed. Flowers up to 1.0 cm long, corolla lobes ovate-obovate. Basal leaves acuminate   7 Ciminalis leucomalaena
    + Plicae unilobed. Flowers up to 1.5 cm long, corolla lobes lanceolate. Basal leaves obtuse subacute   1 Ciminalis aquatica

  • List of lower taxa


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