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Pakistan | Family List | Pakistan V. 139 | Onagraceae

1. Circaea Linn., Sp. Pl. 8:. 1753; Asch. & Mag., Bot. Zeit. 28: 47. 1870; C.B. Clarke in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 2: 599. 1879; H. LJv., Bull. Geogr. Bot. 22: 217. 1912; Gagnepain, Bull. Soc. Bot. France 16: 39. 1916; Hand.-Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7: 602. 1933; Raven in Tutin et al., Fl. Eur. 2: 305. 1968; Bufford, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 67. 1980 (in press).

Peter C. Hoch and Peter H. Raven

Erect, perennial, rhizomatous herbs. Leaves opposite, petiolate, denticuate to serrate or occasionally subentire. Inflorescence a raceme or a branched panicle of racemes, terminal on the main stem and at the tips of the uppermost xillary branches. Flowers 2-merous, the stamens opposite the sepals. Petals notched at the apex, rarely emarginate. Stigma bilobed. Fruit uni- or bilocular with single seed in each locule; an indehiscent capsule covered with stiff, uncinate airs. Floral tube deciduous after anthesis.

A genus of 7 species and an additional 7 subspecies. Circumboreal but with the greatest diversity in eastern Asia where 11 of the 14 taxa occur. Plants of moist deciduous and coniferous forests. Hybrids, which are morphologically intermediate between the parental species, are common and widespread in the genus and should be sought in Pakistan. Four taxa in Pakistan.

[This study was partially funded through a grant from the United States National Science Foundation (DEB76-82476) and a Grant-in-Aid of Research from Sigma Xi for which the author is grateful. He would also like to thank Peter H. Raven for his advice and helpful suggestions.]

1 Ovaries and fruits bilocular. Rhizomes not terminated by tubers. Fruit thickened lenticular to flattened pyriform, obliquely rounded to the pedicel   1 Circaea cordata
+ Ovaries and fruits uniocular. Rhizomes terminated by tubers. Fruit obovoid to slenderly clavate, tapering smoothly to the pedicel.   (2)
2 (1) Pedicels glandular pubescent. Petals notched more than ½ their length, V-shaped.   2 Circaea repens
+ Pedicels glabrous. Petals notched less than ½ their length, obovate to obtriangular.   (3)
3 (2) Leaves thick, opaque, rounded to subcordate at the base, denticulate to subentire. Ovaries pubescent at anthesis.   3 Circaea alpina subsp. Imaicola
+ Leaves thin, translucent, cordate at the base, sharply denticulate to serrate. Ovaries glabrous at anthesis.   3 Circaea alpina subsp. Micrantha

Lower Taxa


Related Objects  

Flora of China  
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