3. Circaea alpina subsp. imaicola (Asch. & Mag.) Kitamura, Fl. Afghanistan. 279. 1960; Raven in Fl. Taiwan 3 : 880. 1977.
Peter C. Hoch and Peter H. Raven
Circaea alpina L. var. imaicola Arch. & Mag., pro parte, Bot. Zeit. 28: 749. 1970; Circaea pricei Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosa 5 : 72. 1915; Circaea imaicola (Asch. & Mag.) Hand. Mazz., pro parte, Symb. Sin. 7: 603. 1933; Circaea minutula Ohwi, Acta Phytotax. & Geobot. 2: 151. 1933.
Herbs, 0.35-4.5 dm tall, simple or very rarely branched below the inflorescence, forming subterranean rhizomes terminated by tubers. Plants pubescent, the stem with short recurved hairs, the axis of the inflorescence with glandular and/ or recurved hairs. Leaves ovate to broadly ovate, less commonly orbicular ovate, acute to very short acuminate at the apex, broadly cuneate to subcordate but most commonly truncate or rounded at the base, subentire to prominently dentate, pubescent, at least on the veins above. Largest leaf blades 2-7 x 1.4-4.5 cm. Pedicels 0.6-2.5 mm, glabrous, erect or ascending at anthesis. Unilocular ovary with soft uncinate hairs. Floral tube up to 0.3 mm long. Sepals 2, 0.7-1.6 x 0.8-1.1 mm, glabrous, white or pink tinged only at the apex, spreading at anthesis. Petals 2, 0.5-1.8 x 0.7-1.5 mm, white or pink, narrowly to broadly obovate in outline, the apical notch ¼ - ½ the length of the petal. Stamens 2, erect or slightly spreading at anthesis, usually equalling the style. Style erect, 0.5-1.8 mm. Mature fruit 2.1-2.5 x 0.5-1.1 mm, unilocular, 1-seeded, clavate, tapering smoothly to the pedicel, densely covered with stiff uncinate hairs. Fruiting pedicels mostly spreading, less commonly slightly reflexed. n = 11.
Type: India, eastern peninsula, Wight 989 (Lectotype: K. Isolectotypes: G; GH; L; LE (not seen); S; W).
Circaea alpina subsp. alpina is more northern and circumboreal in distribution and does not occur in Pakistan. Its closest approach to Pakistan is in the Tien Shan mountain region of eastern Kazakhstan. C. alpina subsp. imaicola occurs in cool moist places along streams, in thickets and coniferous forests and in grassy openings between 2000-4000 m. elev. Fl. Per. Jul.-Oct. Fr. Per.: late Jul.-Nov; Distribution: Afghanistan and northern Pakistan east through the Himalayas to Nepal, Bhutan, northern Burma, northern Vietnam, east central China; Taiwan; disjunct populations in the Nilghiry and Putney Mountains of southern India.