1. Chenopodium foliosum Asch., Fl. Brandenburg. 1: 572. 1864; Iljin & Aellen in Kom., Fl. URSS 6: 48. 1936; Grubov, Pl. As. Centr. 2: 20. 1966; Aellen in P.H.Davis, Fl. Turk. 2: 301. 1967; R.R.Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. & Kashm. 221. 1972; Bhopal & Chaudhri in Pak. Syst. 1: 44. 1977; Kung & Chu in Kung & Tsien, Fl. Reip. Pop. Sin. 25(2): 82. 1979; Mullin in Hara et al., Fl. Pl. Nepal 3: 170. 1982; Uotila in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 172: 29. 1997. (Fig.2, A-D).
Blitum virgatum L., Sp. Pl.: 4. 1753. Chenopodium virgatum (L.) Ambrosi, Fl. Tirolo mer. 2: 179. 1857, non Thunb. 1815; Boiss., Fl. Or. 4: 905. 1879; Chenopodium blitum F.Muell., Select Pl., Additions: 11. 1874; Hook. f., Fl. Br. Ind. 5: 5. 1886.
Almost glabrous annual or sometimes short-lived perennial, to 50(-80) cm; stems yellowish to red, erect to ascending, branches ± spreading, mainly at middle of stem. Leaves somewhat fleshy, pure green, sometimes red; basal leaves long-petiolate, blade 3-9(-12) cm, triangular, coarsely dentate - serrate; blade of middle cauline leaves hastate, middle-lobe with a few teeth or entire; bracts lanceolate with forward-projecting to spreading basal lobes and several teeth, sometimes entire; lobes and teeth spreading to forward-projecting, almost never reflexed. Inflorescence of spicately arranged axillary, (sub)sessile, compact, globose glomerules, up to 10 mm in diameter. Flowers bisexual or female. Perianth segments 3-5, connate below the middle, in fruit usually becoming red and succulent, on branches and in exceptional conditions often remaining greenish and dry. Stamens 1-5. Stigmas 2, short. Seeds mostly vertical, dark red - brown, 1.0-1.4 mm in diameter, mostly roundish in outline, margin obtuse - truncate, in part prominently grooved; testa dull, with obscurely reticulate striations.
Fl. & Fr. Per.: May-October.
Type: ‘Süddeutschland einheimisch’.
Rocky mountain slopes, dry grasslands, slopes and banks, open forests, near stream sides, fields. 1500-3500 m; Distribution: From the Himalayas (Bhutan in the east) and the Altai Mts. to Afghanistan, Iran, Caucasus, N Iraq, Palestine, Cyprus, Turkey, mountainous southern Europe; naturalized in C and E Europe, and locally in N America and N and S Africa.
C. foliosum is usually easy to recognize because of its red, berry-like glomerules. However, depauperate plants and late-season branches of C. foliosum may have dry, non-succulent glomerules. C. foliosum has larger seeds than its relatives in our area (C. litwinowii and C. korshinskyi). However, in C. foliosum seed size may decrease from main stem fruits to those produced later in the season on side branches. The record of C. capitatum (L.) Ambrosi by Pampanini (Fl. Caracorùm: 100. 1930) from the Hunza valley is probably an error or based on cultivated plants: in Europe C. foliosum has often been confused with C. capitatum, a North American species, previously cultivated and naturalized in Europe. C. capitatum has ebracteate inflorescences and succulent, violet glomerules.