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Pakistan | Family List | Pakistan V. 204

Chenopodiaceae Ventenat

H. Freitag, I. C. Hedge, S. M. H. Jafri, G. Kothe-Heinrich, S. Omer & P. Uotila

Authors' institutions:

1 - Morphologie u. Systematik der Pflanzen, Fachbereich Biologie/Chemie Universität Kassel, Heinrich Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel, Germany.

2 - Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh EH3 5LR, U.K.

3 - Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

4 - Südring 23, 64846 Groß-Zimmern, Germany.

5 - Canadian Museum of Nature, Research Division, 1740 Pink Road, Aylmer, Quebec J9H 5E1, Canada.

6 - Botanical Museum, Finnish Museum of Natural History, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Herbs or shrubs, rarely dwarf trees, mostly xerophytic or halophytic. Leaves well-developed or much reduced, succulent or not, exstipulate. Flowers often greenish, hermaphrodite or unisexual, small, solitary or in clusters, often arranged in spicate or paniculate inflorescences, bracteate and mostly bracteolate. Perianth segments (tepals) 3-5, free or connate, rarely 0, persistent or not. Stamens (1-) 2-5, opposite the tepals, free or basally united into a hypogynous disc, sometimes with distinct interstaminal lobes (“staminodes”). Ovary 1-celled, with a single basal ovule, superior; more rarely semi-inferior; style with 2(-3-4) stigmas. Fruit an utricle or achene, rarely a dehiscent capsule, free or adherent to perianth, sometimes additionally enclosed in the bracteoles (valves); segments of fruiting perianth sometimes winged or appendiculate; seed horizontal or vertical, endosperm nearly or completely absent, perisperm abundant or wanting; embryo, variously curved, spirally or helically twisted.

A family of c. 100 genera and over 1200 species, almost cosmopolitan, mostly of saline and arid areas; represented by 35 genera and c. 106 species in Pakistan.

1 Stems jointed.   (2)
+ -Stems not jointed.   (6)
2 (1) Perianth segments winged in fruit; plants with prominent tufts of white hairs in leaf axils, base of flowers or glomerules.   (3)
+ Perianth segments not winged in fruit; plants without tufts of white hairs in leaf axils, glabrous or slightly papillose.   (4)
3 (2) Seeds vertical; annual-perennial herbs or subshrubs.   27 Anabasis
+ Seeds horizontal; shrubs-small trees. (Some growing in sand).   28 Haloxylon
4 (2) Stem papillose at least when young; scale-like leaves apically papillose-fringed; perianth segments united for c. ¾ of their length.   19 Halostachys
+ Stem glabrous, without papillae, scale-like leaves not papillose-fringed; perianth segments united only in basal part.   (5)
5 (4) Stem with numerous opposite globular buds giving rise to ± spreading branches; internodes c. 3 mm; spikes prominently 4-sided.   20 Halocnemum
+ Stem without lateral globular buds; internodes 5-7 mm; spikes not 4-sided, ± cone-like.   18 Arthrocnemum
6 (1) At least some part of the plant with branched hairs, either stellate-dendroid, candelabriform or irregularly medifixed   (7)
+ Plants with only simple hairs, sometimes barbellate, or papillae or with a meal-like bloom or glabrous.   (13)
7 (6) Flowers unisexual (plants monoecious); female flower without a perianth, subtended by two foliaceous bracts.   (8)
+ Flowers hermaphrodite with clearly developed perianth segments.   (10)
8 (7) Annuals; bracts in fruits without silky hairs, grey-green.   (9)
+ Shrub; bract in fruit densely covered with long silky hairs, tawny when dry.   6 Krascheninnikovia
9 (8) Pistillate flower with 3-partite perianth; valves without horn-like projections; branches alternate.   8 Axyris
+ Pistillate flowers without perianth; valves with horn-like projections, branches alternate and opposite.   7 Ceratocarpus
10 (7) Fruiting perianth with five distinct wings; dwarf shrubs.   23 Salsola
+ Fruiting perianth without wings; annuals.   (11)
11 (10) Perianth segments 5, conspicuous, showy (white-rosy); branched hairs present.   16 Anthochlamys
+ Perianth segments 1-5, inconspicuous.   (12)
12 (11) Leaves spine-tipped, stiff; inflorescence distinctly spiny; perianth segment one, but 3-lobed.   15 Agriophyllum
+ Leaves not or scarcely mucronate, herbaceous; inflorescence not spiny; perianth segments present or absent, but none 3-lobed.   14 Corispermum
13 (6) Leaf axil and the base of flowers or glomerules with ± dense tufts of white hairs; otherwise, plants glabrous or with scabrid papillae; embryo spiral.   (14)
+ Leaf axils, flower and glomerule bases either glabrous or with only a few hairs; otherwise plants either glabrous, with hairs, papillae or a meal-like bloom; embryo spiral, horse-shoe-shaped, annular or curved.   (22)
14 (13) Leaves all opposite.   (15)
+ Leaves alternate or lowermost only opposite.   (16)
15 (14) Plants glabrous, with or without a shiny stem; leaves apically obtuse without a bristle or mucro; seed horizontal.   25 Seidlitzia
+ Plant with at least some scabrid papillae; leaves spiny or mucronate; seed horizontal or vertical.   26 Girgensohnia
16 (14) Perianth segments in fruit fused and indurated with 1 (-2) prominent long sturdy spines; leaves often represented only by hard spines.   31 Cornulaca
+ Perianth segments winged in fruit, without spines; leaves herbaceous.   (17)
17 (16) Fruiting perianth thickened and indurated below the wings.   24 Halothamnus
+ Fruiting perianth not thickened and indurated.   (18)
18 (17) Perianth deeply 5-lobed, lobes membranous in flower.   35 Noaea
+ Perianth segments 5, free or nearly free.   (19)
19 (18) Stem green with white or purple lines, often angular.   23 Salsola
+ Stems whitish throughout, ± terete.   (20)
20 (19) Perennial; only 3 (-4) perianth segments winged in fruit; seeds vertical.   33 Agathophora
+ Annuals or perennials; all 5 perianth segments winged in fruit.   (21)
21 (20) Dwarf annuals; wings developing near apex of perianth segments.   32 Halogeton
+ Taller annuals or perennials; wings present in lower half of perianth segments.   23 Salsola
22 (13) Stamens with prominent, yellow, cream, pink or purple vesicles or appendages near the apex of the connectives.   (23)
+ Stamens without or with short inconspicuous apical extensions on the thecae.   (27)
23 (22) Fruiting perianth segments winged, in flower segments with a transverse line.   23 Salsola
+ Fruiting perianth segments without wings, in flower without a transverse line.   (24)
24 (23) Perianth segments and/or subtending leaf-like bracts not coalescing in fruit.   (25)
+ Perianth segment and/or subtending leaf-like bracts coalescing in fruit.   (26)
25 (24) Perennials; leaf apex without terminal bristle-like hairs.   23 Salsola (sect. Belanthera p.p)
+ Annuals; leaf apex with 1 or a few terminal bristle-like hairs.   30 Halocharis
26 (24) Perianth segments not or scarcely indurating in fruit, subtending bracts indurating both forming a nut-like fruiting disseminule, 2-horned or not.   34 Gamanthus
+ Perianth segments basally indurating and coalescing in fruit forming a flask-like disseminule, not 2-horned.   29 Halimocnemis
27 (22) Perianth segments developing in fruit at least some distinct terminal or lateral spreading wings or spines or protuberances.   (28)
+ Perianth segments in fruit without wings or spines or protuberances.   (36)
28 (27) Plants with distinct hairs, usually barbellate.   (29)
+ Plants without hairs, either glabrous or with papillae or vesicles or with villous hairs in leaf axils.   (32)
29 (28) Fruiting perianth segments with straight or uncinate spiny outgrowths.   12 Bassia
+ Fruiting perianth segments winged or with horny outgrowths.   (29)
30 Leaves semi-terete or terete; seeds horizontal, rarely vertical; embryo spiral.   23 Salsola
+ Leaves flat; seeds vertical or horizontal; embryo annular or horse-shoe-shaped.   (30)
31 Seeds vertical; fruiting perianth segments with apical horns or wings.   11 Panderia
+ Seeds horizontal; fruiting perianth segments variously winged.   13 Kochia
32 (28) Annuals; all leaves opposite.   26 Girgensohnia
+ Annuals or perennials; all or at least upper leaves alternate.   (33)
33 (32) Perianth deeply 5-lobed; lobes membranous in flower and dorsally winged in fruit; seeds vertical.   35 Noaea
+ Perianth not as above; seeds horizontal.   (34)
34 (33) Fruiting perianth lobes united, forming a regular, circular wing; a very fleshy sturdy annual.   22 Bienertia
+ Fruiting perianth not forming an undivided circular wing; annuals or perennial; fleshy or not.   (33)
35 Fruiting perianth thickened and strongly indurated below the wings.   24 Halothamnus
+ Fruiting perianth not or scarcely thickened and indurated.   23 Salsola
36 (27) Hairs clearly present on at least on some part of the plant.   (37)
+ Plants entirely glabrous, or with a mealy indumentum or with some scabrid papillae.   (39)
37 (36) Dwarf shrubs with very dense clusters of basal linear, rigid leaves; hairs barbellate; perianth segments 4; stamens 4.   10 Camphorosma
+ Annual or perennial herbs, leaves not basally clustered; hairs barbellate or not; perianth segments and stamens usually 5.   (38)
38 (37) Perianth showy with rosy-white petaloid lobes; fruits erect, strongly flattened.   16 Anthochlamys
+ Perianth segments inconspicuous, scarious, membranous; fruits horizontal or erect.   3 Chenopodium
39 (36) Plants with a mealy indumentum or scabrid papillae.   (40)
+ Plants glabrous, rarely with few scattered hairs.   (44)
40 (39) Leaves opposite, sessile with a basal scarious margin; indumentum scabrid-papillose.   26 Girgensohnia
+ Leaves alternate or opposite, petiolate, basally not scarious, indumentum a mealy bloom.   (41)
41 (40) Plants monoecious.   (43)
+ Plants with both hermaphrodite flowers and some female ones.   (42)
42 (41) Flowers solitary or sessile in upper leaf axils.   35 Noaea
+ Flowers in panicles or arranged cymosely forming clusters (glomerules).   3 Chenopodium
43 (41) Female flowers borne in axils of a foliaceous bract in a cup formed by two connate bracts.   5 Atriplex
+ Several female flowers borne at the base of a foliaceous bract.   9 Microgynoecium
44 (39) Leaves terete, sessile.   (45)
+ Leaves with a ± broad flat lamina, petiolate.   (47)
45 (44) Flowers grouped in 3s, immersed in fleshy spikes; perianth segments 3, inconspicuous.   17 Halopeplis
+ Flowers solitary or in leaf axils.   (46)
46 (45) Flowers with two small bracteoles.   21 Suaeda
+ Flowers with two leaf-like bracts.   35 Noaea
47 (44) Ends of sterile branches somewhat spiny; annuals, with coarsely toothed leaves.   1 Acroglochin
+ Sterile branches not spiny; annuals or perennials, leaves with entire-dentate margin or lobed.   (48)
48 (47) Leaves dentate, often hastate; flowers in dense clusters, often berry-like; perianth segments not hardening in fruit.   3 Chenopodium
+ Leaves entire-sinuately lobed; perianth segments and bracteoles coalescing and hardening in fruit.   (49)
49 (48) Flowers hermaphrodite; leaves entire, sometimes with a wavy margin.   2 Beta
+ Flowers unisexual (plants dioecious); leaves mostly lobed.   4 Spinacia

  • List of lower taxa


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