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Pakistan | Family List | Pakistan V. 204 | Chenopodiaceae

21. Suaeda Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 70. 1775; Scop., Introd. Hist.-Nat. 333. 1777 (nomen conserv.); J.F.Gmelin in L., Syst. Nat. ed. 13, 2: 503. 1791; Moq. in Ann. Sci. Nat. 23:303.1831; Chenopod. Monogr. enum. 120.1840;. in DC., Prodr. 13,2:155.1849; Boiss., Fl. Or. 4: 937.1879; Hook.f., Fl.Brit.Ind. 5: 13. 1886; Ulbrich in Engl. & Prantl (eds.), Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 16c: 555. 1934; Iljin in Fl. SSSR 6: 174. 1936; Iljin in Sov. Bot. 5: 39. 1936; Aellen in Hegi, Ill. Fl. Mittel-Eur. ed. 2, 3,2: 734. 1968; Kuhn in Kubitzki (ed.), Fam. Gen. Flow. Pl. 2: 274. 1993; Boulos in Miller & Cope (eds.), Fl. Arab. Penins. Socotra 1: 257. 1996; Akhani & Podlech in Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 172: 133. 1997; Chaudhary, Fl. Kingd. Saudi Arabia 1: 174. 1999.

Schoberia C.A. Mey. in Ledeb., Icon. Pl. Fl. Ross. 1:11.1829; Schanginia C.A.Mey. in Ledeb., Fl. Altaica 1:394. 1829; Brezia Moq. in DC., Prodr. 13,2:167.1849; Chenopodina Moq. in DC. l.c.159.

Annuals, dwarf shrubs, rarely dwarf trees. Glabrous, papillose or with fugacious hairs. Young stems pale green or purplish throughout, or with longitudinal green lines, densely leafy. Leaves alternate, entire, sessile or shortly petiolate, linear to almost circular, ±succulent, terete, semi-terete or flat on both sides; isolateral, with C3 or C4 anatomy and all bundles arranged in one plane. Inflorescences terminal, spike-like, usually branched. Bracts leaf-like, but successively shorter. Bracteoles membranous, ovate, with entire or eroso-dentate margins. Flowers sessile, in cymose axillary clusters of (1)3-many, or the clusters located on the petiole at some distance from the leaf axil, more rarely on short ebracteate axillary branches; usually the first ones bisexual and protandrous, the lateral pistillate with rudimentary stamens, rarely the first ones staminate with pistil rudiment. Tepals 5, fused for 1/5-3/5, green, the free lobes incurved, often succulent, with membranous margins and cucullate apex, persistent, after anthesis usually enlarged, dorsally sometimes with bulge-, horn- or wing-like outgrowths or becoming spongy throughout. Stamens 5, rarely less by abortion; antitepalous, unappendaged; filaments band-shaped, inserted on an epitepalous rim or individually in lower part of tepals, finally surpassing the tepals. Ovary superior, very rarely semi-inferior, conical, ovoid, obpyriform or cylindric, with truncate or acutish apex; style absent; stigmas 2 or 3, rarely more, usually subulate, papillose throughout, spreading or flexuose, in pistillate flowers usually much longer. Fruit horizontal, vertical or oblique, with thin, papery pericarp. Seeds slightly to strongly flattened, disc-shaped to almost globular, often drop-shaped, beaked; testa usually crustaceous, black or chestnut-coloured, smooth and glossy or ±sculptured by domed to papillose epidermal cells and then dull to moderately shining; embryo flat spiral; endosperm scanty or absent; in case of heterocarpy a second type of seeds present that are larger in diameter, more strongly flattened, with very thin, light brown testa and the twisted embryo clearly visible from the outside.

A genus of about 80-90 halophytic species, distributed throughout the world, but primarily extra-tropical, growing on wet, moist or dry saline, alkaline and gypsiferous soils in semi-deserts, deserts and along sea-shores; in the Old World centred around the Mediterranean and in the semi-deserts of C and SW Asia; represented in Pakistan by 7 species.

* H. Freitag, Morphologie u. Systematik der Pflanzen, Fachbereich Biologie/ Chemie, Universität Kassel, Heinrich Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel, Germany.

Species erroneously recorded from the area

S. corniculata (C.A.Meyer) Fenzl in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5: 13. 1886 etc. -annual species of sect. Chenopodina from C Asia, very close to and sometimes mistaken for S. olufsenii.

S. microsperma (C.A.Meyer) Bunge in Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5: 13. 1886 etc. - annual species of sect. Conosperma from the Irano-Turanian and western part of C Asiatic regions, related to and mistasken for S. acuminata.

S. nudiflora (Willd.)Moq. in Burkill, Work. List Fl. Pl. Baluch. 65. 1909 etc.- an annual to biennial species of sect. Chenopodina from coastal salt- marshes of S India, notoriously confused with but not related to S. fruticosa.

S. physophora Pall. in R.R.Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. Pak Kashm. 227. 1972 - shrubby perennial of sect. Physophora from Aralo-Caspian and N Irano-Turanian regions, mistaken for S.fruticosa.

S. salsa (L.)Pall., in R.R.Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. Pak. Kashm. 227. 1972 - annual species of sect. Chenopodina from Pontic - S Siberian and Aralo-Caspian regions, mistaken for young individuals of S. fruticosa.

S. vermiculata Forssk. ex J.F.Gmelin in Boiss., Fl. Or. 4: 940. 1879 etc. - shrubby perennial of sect. Lachnostigma from the S Mediterranean region, related to and commonly confused with S. fruticosa.

1 Shrubs or dwarf shrubs.   (2)
+ Annuals, eventually woody at the base.   (3)
2 (1) Leaves linear, 10-25 x 1,7-2,5 mm, flat on both sides, along the margins with whitish hyaline lines caused by 2 gaps in the chlorenchyma. Fruiting branches ±pendant. Brac-teoles with entire margins. Flowers usually unisexual, the male funnel-shaped, the female cylindric. Seeds always vertical. Coastal areas.   2 S. monoica
+ Leaves of diverse shape and size, without whitish marginal lines and continuous chlo-renchyma Fruiting branches erect or spreading. Bracteoles erose-dentate to ciliate. Flowers bisexual and female, the bisexual ±drum-shaped. Seeds in bisexual flowers horizontal, in others usually vertical. Lowlands and lower mountain belt.   1 S. fruticosa
3 (1) Ovary with 3 stigmas inserted in the sunken centre of its truncate, collar-like apex, only exceptionally 2 or 4 stigmas present. Seeds vertical or horizontal, slightly flattened, black, smooth, glossy. Leaves with C4 anatomy (chlorenchyma with a palisade-layer followed by a Kranz layer of cubical cells).   (4)
+ Ovary with 2 stigmas inserted in its acutish top. Seeds horizontal, strongly flattened, chestnut-coloured., sculptured, ±dull. Leaves with C3 anatomy (chlorenchyma palisadic throughout).   (6)
4 (3) Leaves acute or acuminate, usually with a short mucro, flat above; in cross section with a thick hyaline peripheral water-storage tissue and internal chlorenchyma (visible already at a broken leaf with the naked eye). Fruiting perianth almost globular to drum-shaped, tepal lobes dorsally ±keeled. Higher mountain belts.   5 S. acuminata
+ Leaves obtuse, usually convex on both sides, in cross section with internal water-storage tissue and peripheral chlorenchyma. Fruiting perianth turbinate, tepal lobes dorsally evenly convex. From plains to higher mountainous belts.   (5)
5 (4) Perianth adnate to the ovary and the pericarp in its lower 1/2 to 2/3. Filaments inserted in a distinct rim. Lowlands and lower mountain belt.   4 S. aegyptiaca
+ Perianth free from ovary and pericarp. Filaments inserted individually near tepal bases. Middle and higher mountain belts.   3 S. arcuata
6 (3) Plants usually erect. Tepals ±equal. Fertile stamens 5. Fruiting perianth at base of tepal lobes with wing-like horizontal outgrowths, often fused into a continuous transverse band, back of all lobes flat. Higher mountain belts.   6 S. heterophylla
+ Plants usually prostrate. Tepals conspicuously unequal. Fertile stamens 4-2. Fruiting perianth at base of lobes unwinged or only a few with unequal transverse wings, back of lobes along the dorsal line bulge-like thickened, in dry condition keel-like. Alpine and subalpine belts of Kashmir and Ladakh.   7 S. olufsenii

Lower Taxa


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